This study, A CROSS EXAMINATION OF PRISON ADMINISTRATION AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGERIA contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 RESESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 STUDY POPULATION
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 DATA FOR THE STUDY: INSTRUMENTATION
3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA PRESENTPRESENTATATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Almost everyone would agree that hurting someone or subjecting them to pain is wrong. However, punishment, by definition, involves the infliction of pain. Does this make punishment wrong? Philosophers are divided on this issue. One group believes that inflicting pain as punishment is fundamentally different from inflicting pain on innocents, and therefore is not inherently wrong. Another group believes that punishment is a wrong that can be justified only if it results in a “greater good” (Murphy 1995).
Incapacitation and rehabilitation are not really related to punishment at all. Incapacitationprevents an individual from inflicting further harm for at least as long as the individual is under control. Strictly speaking, it is not punishment because it does not necessarily imply pain. To put all criminals under a drug that induced sleep would be to incapacitate them, not necessarily to punish them. If one takes away the ability of the criminal to commit crime, this also would be incapacitation; for instance, chemical castration has been discussed and, in some cases, inflicted on sexual offenders. Note that there is no physical pain involved, only the incapacitating nature of the chemical. This is obviously a punishment, but it could also be termed incapacitation because it takes away the ability to commit the particular crime. House arrest, electronic bracelets, or other means of monitoring the movements of criminals have all been suggested as less expensive alternatives to incapacitating criminals in prisons. Prison, of course, has becomesynonymous with incapacitation because as long as the person is incarcerated, theycannot commit crimes against the rest of us. Of course, prisoners continue to commit crimes in prison against other inmates, and there is at least some limited ability to continue to commit some crimes, for instance, credit-card abuse over prison phones or computer fraud using computers provided in vocational programs. One issue of incapacitation is how long to hold the individual.
Rehabilitation is not punishment either, although punishment may be used as a tool of reform. Rehabilitation is defined as internal change that results in a cessation of the targeted negative behavior. It may be achieved by inflicting pain as a learning tool (behavior modification) or by other interventions that are not painful at all (for example, self-esteem groups, education, or religion). Under the retributive philosophy described earlier, rehabilitation and treatment are considered more intrusive and less respectful of the individuality of each person than pure punishment because they attack the internal psyche of the individual. They seek to change offenders, perhaps against their will. This is probably more sophistry than reality, as anyone who has worked with offenders can attest. Very few people enjoy the experience of being a drug addict or sex offender, and most prison programs have limited capacity to change individuals against their will anyway.
The Nigerian prison system, as it is known today, was introduced by the British during the time when Nigeria was her colony (1861–1960). The British left a two-tier system (Native and Federal) of prisons which became unified into one prison system in 1968. The Nigerian prison system is headed by a Director who is assisted by Assistant Directors, Chief Superintendents, Superintendents and Assistant Superintendents of prisons. These are all senior officers. The junior level is comprised of wardens of various grades. Both junior and senior officers wear uniforms. Classification of prisons and prisoners is rather loose and sometimes arbitrary—leading to occasional mixing of first offenders and career criminals. The aim of imprisonment is not specifically spelled out in any statutes or decrees. The problems of prison administration in Modern Nigeria include high staff turnover rate, inadequate classification of inmates, etc. To alleviate such problems it will be necessary to review and improve the general working conditions for staff, find alternatives to imprisonment, and carry on more research on criminality in Nigeria. Many of these will be easy to carry out if the government provides sufficient funding. (Adewale, 2011).
Nigeria is among the developing countries of the world, and it’s experiencing a prevalence of rising crime waves, criminal intentions and varying degree of delinquencies. Nigeria has been on the global crime map since 1980s.The nature of these crimes includes armed robbery, murder, rape, car theft, burglary, fraud, bribery and corruption, food and drug adulteration, gambling, smuggling, human trafficking, kidnapping, drug trafficking, money laundering, internet scam, advanced fee fraud and other illegal activities. It is preposterous that in Nigeria, there is no adequate will and genuine intention by any government to rid the society of the criminal tendencies and manifestations, as people in the leadership positions are also guilty of corruption and crime. An example of such flagrant disregard for diligent prosecution is the case of the former Governor of Delta State, Nigeria, Chief James Ibori who was found not guilty of corruption in Nigeria, but has since been jailed in the United Kingdom money laundering crime. The trial of many former Governors for corruption while in office has been going about 8 years with no end in sight, while they have moved on to other political offices while the trial drags on without diligent prosecution. Dambazzau (2007) defined crime as a pattern of attitudes and behaviors directed both at reducing the threat of crime and enhancing the sense of safety and security to positively influence the quality of life, and to develop environments where crime cannot flourish. It is also the anticipation, recognition and appraisal of crime risk and the initiation of some action to reduce or remove it.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
This research will look into the classification of prisons and prison staffs and their specific functions so as to inculcate proper administration for crime prevention in Nigeria.
Also, classification of prisoners is sort of loose and sometimes arbitrary— which leads to occasional mixing of first offenders and career criminals. This research work is directed towards looking at these offences and how crime can be prevented in Nigeria.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIIONS
This work is designed to provide answers to the following questions:
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Nigeria does not have a good prison administration.
Nigeria has a good prison administration.
Crime cannot be prevented in Nigeria.
Crime can be prevented in Nigeria.
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