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A SURVEY OF MODEL OF INSTRUCTION OF TEACHING PRIMARY SCIENCE IN ABEOKUTA EDUCATION ZONE OF OGUN STATE

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

: A SURVEY OF MODEL OF INSTRUCTION OF TEACHING PRIMARY SCIENCE IN ABEOKUTA EDUCATION ZONE OF OGUN STATE
: Chapter 1 – 5
: #3, 000
: Ms Word format

This study, A SURVEY OF MODEL OF INSTRUCTION OF TEACHING PRIMARY SCIENCE IN ABEOKUTA EDUCATION ZONE OF OGUN STATE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: A SURVEY OF MODEL OF INSTRUCTION OF TEACHING PRIMARY SCIENCE IN ABEOKUTA EDUCATION ZONE OF OGUN STATE


RESEARCH BODY

ABSTRACT

This project has been able to do some research on the survey of model of instruction of teaching primary science in Abeokuta Education Zone of Ogun State. Chapter one deals with introductory aspect of this project, background of the study of primary science teachers and their subject, the problem study, research questions i.e. what are the benefit of the model of teaching in primary schools, significance of the study, scope of the study and definition of terms.

The researcher also reviewed some literatures which were written by different scholars on the topic which as helped the researcher to conclude the research findings. For the purpose of the study a questionnaire was developed for researcher to obtain the necessary information. One hundred (100) questionnaire were in useable form for the purpose of the teachers in some selected primary schools in order for them to express their mind towards the survey of model of instruction as regards the specialist and generalist of model of instruction. Data were carefully studied, analysed and interpreted using simple percentage. The result obtained from the collected data through the questionnaire were used in summarizing, making recommendation and conclusion.

Based on the recommendation of this study, government should contribute to the schools as regards both model of instruction. Secondary, parent should help the pupils as regards both model of instructions.

Based on the conclusion, as regards both model of instructions the teachers, pupils, government, school authorities and parents have various roles to play to male these model of instructions more effective and beneficiary to all.     

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background of the Study

Statement of the Problems

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions

Scope of the Study

Significance of the Study

Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

The Meaning of Instruction, Gender and Gender & Instruction

Delivery Models for Elementary Scientific Instructions: A Call for Research

Student Outcomes Leafing to Scientific Literacy

Attributes Needed to Teach for Science Literacy

Five Delivery Methods/Models for Elementary

Scientific Instruction

Evidence and Argument for Model Effectiveness

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology

Research Design

Population and Sampling

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Research Instrument

Validation of the Research

Method of Data Collection

Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation of Data, Findings and Analysis                                  

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

References

Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Science education reform efforts set clear expectation  for k-12 education to produce scientifically literate adults (American Association for the advancement of science [AAAS], 1990, 1993, National Research council [NRC] 1996). The reforms also universally recognize that, in order for this goal to be achieved, the process  of educating a scientifically literate population must  start the earliest grades and proceed in a co-ordinate fashion throughout  the public school years. science is a basic, as important as acquiring the skills and knowledge needed to read, write, use mathematical ideas, apply technology, understand the social sciences and appreciate the fine arts ( locks- Horsleyetal; 1990).

Despite such goals 25% of all elementary teachers do not reach science at all hands, among those who  do, science accounts for less than 2 hours of the instructional time each week (Reizen and Michel Sonn, 1994; Tilgner, 1990). These figures are offered in contrast  to the  recommended 120 minutes of weekly science instruction at the k- 3levels and the 30 minutes at the 4-6 grade levels  (Louks- Horsely, 1990) Why don’t  elementary  teachers teach science? Potential  explanations include insufficient science  content knowledge  limited resources, academic time and physical space, an overly crowded  elementary curriculum, and low levels of science efficiency.

Regardless of explanation, limited science exposure in the elementary  grades result in low levels of science achievement. In addition, poor attitudes towards science developed by the students in the elementary years may inhibit future science pursuits elementary (National center for Educational statistics, 1995). Both achievements and attitudinal  out comes will inhibit reaching the ultimate goal  of scientific literary.

All elementary teachers possess some degree of each of the attributes needed for the quality science instruction but few possess high levels of knowledge and skill in each of these areas. And in addition to science, elementary teacher are expected to have this level of knowledge for multiple discipline is it  realistic to expect all elementary teacher to possess these  attributes  in all content areas? If not what type elementary science delivery model would provide instructors who  possess these attributes.

However thinking the about models for the delivery of science instruction, there are multitude of alternative at one  end of spectrum, each elementary  teachers is responsible for science instruction at the other and only science specialists are adequately prepared to handle  such task. Here we will discuss the delivery methods/model of elementary/ base science instruction. the models will be discussed and described in terms of the assumed characteristic of classroom  practice, teacher preparation, and potential advantages and disadvantages .

Therefore, going with the example set by Abell (1990), similar delivery models in other content areas will be identified.

  • Classroom Generalists

Elementary teacher preparation typically follows a generalist models, with each of the areas [typically included in the elementary curriculum: Reading, writing, mathematics, science,  social studies, health and physical education and fine arts.

As a result it is assumed that the teacher has sufficient knowledge and preparation to design and delivery curriculum that adequately covers each content in a self contained classroom. One employed, each teacher has flexibility to organize and allocate class time to the various content objective as they see it

The advantages of this models include a deep understanding of student interest and development, curriculum flexibility in terms of planning of thematic, interdisciplinary  or integrated instruction, and no need for  additional personnel, (Tilgner 1990).

Disadvantages include limited content knowledge, limited science- specific pedagogical and curriculum knowledge, and dispersed materials recourse. The most divesting disadvantages  of this model may be the lack of time dedicated in science instruction resulting from multiple teaching responsibilities, pervasive accountability measure for reading and  mathematics  (but not science), and low levels of interest or self confidence in science  teaching, (Tilgner 1990).

  • Classroom Science Specialists

Most classroom teachers find that they have a preference for one or more of the content areas that they  teach. Allowing teachers to identify a specialty area, either through a content major or minor  additional course work or workshops or other forms of formally recognized advanced  preparation would create classroom based content recourse within schools . For instance a classroom science specialist  would still be responsible for a self-contained classroom, but would take leadership or offer assistance to other teacher in the area of science  instruction, (Abell,1999).

The science specialist could be given the primary responsibility for previewing and selecting science curriculum  materials and ordering and maintaining science equipment, thus creating  a division of labor for the benefit of all. This model is similar  to the one proposed by the National commission on Teaching and American’s future (1996) and would flatten school- based hierarchies and result in  the maximum number of specialists in contact with students.

Advantages for the students of the classroom science specialist include increased teacher content and curricular knowledge and time dedicated top science instruction While other teacher have access, close proximity, and the support of science specialist unless there is an infrastructure of  support within the school few benefits may extend beyond the boundaries of the specialist is classroom.

For instance unless there is time planned into the school day for teacher collaborate, the presence of the specialist will be under utilized.

In addition unless differential hiring patterns for specialists are introduced, there would be limited incentive for a teacher to become a science specialist. Most elementary teachers, if required to select a specialty area, would gravitate toward the language arts (Tilgner, 1990).

Only if a per-school number of science specialists were required would the mark demands encourage teachers to focus in this area.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

The research is based on the investigation of the survey of methods of instruction in primary science in schools in Abeokuta Education zone of Ogun State, such problems includes;

As regards generalist model of instruction, teachers will find it difficult to cope with the pupils especially if the classroom consist of many pupils. There will be so much work compiled on the teacher himself.

Regarding the specialist model, pupils will always see different faces on different occasion. That is having one teacher for one subject which will likely not make them move closer to their teachers.

Generalist model of instruction, when delivering they only deliver the little knowledge they have about the particular subject, while in specialist-model of instruction the teacher goes into full details when doing research on a particular subject.

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This project is aimed at:

  • Investigating whether the student gain more in generalist model of instruction or specialist model of instruction or vice-versa.
  • Finding out if male student find it easier in specialist model of instruction than female student or vice-versa.
  • Determining the rate at which teacher based on generalist model of instruction enjoy their field unlike specialist model of instruction.
  • Offering suggestions for teaching methods that both teacher and students/pupils will benefit from.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Of what important is the specialist method of teaching to male pupils?
  2. Is generalist model of instruction beneficial to both teachers and pupils?
  3. Does the parents encourage the pupils on the kind of model of instruction they are being given?
  4. To what extent does government contribute to the schools as regards both model of instruction?
  5. What are the duties of the school authorities towards the interest of the pupils as regards the specialist and generalist model of instruction?
  6. Which model of instruction is commonly practiced?
  7. Which model of instruction is best preferred by the teachers?

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research is limited to some nursery and primary schools teachers and some selected experienced parents who are interested in the training of primary school pupils. It is limited to some primary schools in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Due to insufficient fund and the expansion of the territory,y some primary school may be neglected.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significance because:-

The policy maker educators, stakeholders will be equipped with information on the practices of schools with regards to the model of instruction.

The generalist model of delivery is of not much benefit to the teachers unlike the pupils, in the sense that when a teacher is handling two classes or even one and he is taking all subject like Mathematics, Yoruba, Basic Science, English Language e.t.c. It would look more complicated to him unlike someone in the specialist model of delivery that is specified to just one subject like basic science.

To the pupils they might prefer to have one teacher to teach them all subject because they would rather want to be under the control of just one particular teacher. It also form strong base of literature for students who are interested in the topic.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

  • SURVEY: An investigation of the opinions, behaviour of a particular group of people, which is usually done by asking them questions. The act of examining and recording the measurements, features of an area of land in order to make a map or plan of it. To study and give a general description of something. To look carefully at whole of something, especially in order to get a general impression of it.
  • MODELS: It is a kind of process a teacher would take in delivering a particular message to his pupils in order for them to a gain or achieve a specified objective from the lesson.
  • INSTRUCTIONS: Detailed information on how to do or use something that somebody tells you to do, a piece of information that tells a computer to perform a particular operation. Giving detailed information on how to do or use something.
  • SCIENCE: Knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove. The study of science, a particular branch of science. A system for organizing the knowledge about a particular subject, especially one concerned with aspects of human behaviour or society.
  • PRIMARY: It is connected with the education of children the ages of about five and eleven, developing or happening first (earlist). It is a basic stage, it can also be referred to as ELEMENTARY.
Keywords: A SURVEY OF MODEL OF INSTRUCTION OF TEACHING PRIMARY SCIENCE IN ABEOKUTA EDUCATION ZONE OF OGUN STATE



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