This study, A SURVEY OF MODEL OF INSTRUCTION OF TEACHING PRIMARY SCIENCE IN ABEOKUTA EDUCATION ZONE OF OGUN STATE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
This project has been able to do some research on the survey of model of instruction of teaching primary science in Abeokuta Education Zone of Ogun State. Chapter one deals with introductory aspect of this project, background of the study of primary science teachers and their subject, the problem study, research questions i.e. what are the benefit of the model of teaching in primary schools, significance of the study, scope of the study and definition of terms.
The researcher also reviewed some literatures which were written by different scholars on the topic which as helped the researcher to conclude the research findings. For the purpose of the study a questionnaire was developed for researcher to obtain the necessary information. One hundred (100) questionnaire were in useable form for the purpose of the teachers in some selected primary schools in order for them to express their mind towards the survey of model of instruction as regards the specialist and generalist of model of instruction. Data were carefully studied, analysed and interpreted using simple percentage. The result obtained from the collected data through the questionnaire were used in summarizing, making recommendation and conclusion.
Based on the recommendation of this study, government should contribute to the schools as regards both model of instruction. Secondary, parent should help the pupils as regards both model of instructions.
Based on the conclusion, as regards both model of instructions the teachers, pupils, government, school authorities and parents have various roles to play to male these model of instructions more effective and beneficiary to all.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problems
Purpose of the Study
Scope of the Study
Significance of the Study
Definition of Terms
The Meaning of Instruction, Gender and Gender & Instruction
Delivery Models for Elementary Scientific Instructions: A Call for Research
Student Outcomes Leafing to Scientific Literacy
Attributes Needed to Teach for Science Literacy
Five Delivery Methods/Models for Elementary
Evidence and Argument for Model Effectiveness
Population and Sampling
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validation of the Research
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
Presentation of Data, Findings and Analysis
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Science education reform efforts set clear expectation for k-12 education to produce scientifically literate adults (American Association for the advancement of science [AAAS], 1990, 1993, National Research council [NRC] 1996). The reforms also universally recognize that, in order for this goal to be achieved, the process of educating a scientifically literate population must start the earliest grades and proceed in a co-ordinate fashion throughout the public school years. science is a basic, as important as acquiring the skills and knowledge needed to read, write, use mathematical ideas, apply technology, understand the social sciences and appreciate the fine arts ( locks- Horsleyetal; 1990).
Despite such goals 25% of all elementary teachers do not reach science at all hands, among those who do, science accounts for less than 2 hours of the instructional time each week (Reizen and Michel Sonn, 1994; Tilgner, 1990). These figures are offered in contrast to the recommended 120 minutes of weekly science instruction at the k- 3levels and the 30 minutes at the 4-6 grade levels (Louks- Horsely, 1990) Why don’t elementary teachers teach science? Potential explanations include insufficient science content knowledge limited resources, academic time and physical space, an overly crowded elementary curriculum, and low levels of science efficiency.
Regardless of explanation, limited science exposure in the elementary grades result in low levels of science achievement. In addition, poor attitudes towards science developed by the students in the elementary years may inhibit future science pursuits elementary (National center for Educational statistics, 1995). Both achievements and attitudinal out comes will inhibit reaching the ultimate goal of scientific literary.
All elementary teachers possess some degree of each of the attributes needed for the quality science instruction but few possess high levels of knowledge and skill in each of these areas. And in addition to science, elementary teacher are expected to have this level of knowledge for multiple discipline is it realistic to expect all elementary teacher to possess these attributes in all content areas? If not what type elementary science delivery model would provide instructors who possess these attributes.
However thinking the about models for the delivery of science instruction, there are multitude of alternative at one end of spectrum, each elementary teachers is responsible for science instruction at the other and only science specialists are adequately prepared to handle such task. Here we will discuss the delivery methods/model of elementary/ base science instruction. the models will be discussed and described in terms of the assumed characteristic of classroom practice, teacher preparation, and potential advantages and disadvantages .
Therefore, going with the example set by Abell (1990), similar delivery models in other content areas will be identified.
Elementary teacher preparation typically follows a generalist models, with each of the areas [typically included in the elementary curriculum: Reading, writing, mathematics, science, social studies, health and physical education and fine arts.
As a result it is assumed that the teacher has sufficient knowledge and preparation to design and delivery curriculum that adequately covers each content in a self contained classroom. One employed, each teacher has flexibility to organize and allocate class time to the various content objective as they see it
The advantages of this models include a deep understanding of student interest and development, curriculum flexibility in terms of planning of thematic, interdisciplinary or integrated instruction, and no need for additional personnel, (Tilgner 1990).
Disadvantages include limited content knowledge, limited science- specific pedagogical and curriculum knowledge, and dispersed materials recourse. The most divesting disadvantages of this model may be the lack of time dedicated in science instruction resulting from multiple teaching responsibilities, pervasive accountability measure for reading and mathematics (but not science), and low levels of interest or self confidence in science teaching, (Tilgner 1990).
Most classroom teachers find that they have a preference for one or more of the content areas that they teach. Allowing teachers to identify a specialty area, either through a content major or minor additional course work or workshops or other forms of formally recognized advanced preparation would create classroom based content recourse within schools . For instance a classroom science specialist would still be responsible for a self-contained classroom, but would take leadership or offer assistance to other teacher in the area of science instruction, (Abell,1999).
The science specialist could be given the primary responsibility for previewing and selecting science curriculum materials and ordering and maintaining science equipment, thus creating a division of labor for the benefit of all. This model is similar to the one proposed by the National commission on Teaching and American’s future (1996) and would flatten school- based hierarchies and result in the maximum number of specialists in contact with students.
Advantages for the students of the classroom science specialist include increased teacher content and curricular knowledge and time dedicated top science instruction While other teacher have access, close proximity, and the support of science specialist unless there is an infrastructure of support within the school few benefits may extend beyond the boundaries of the specialist is classroom.
For instance unless there is time planned into the school day for teacher collaborate, the presence of the specialist will be under utilized.
In addition unless differential hiring patterns for specialists are introduced, there would be limited incentive for a teacher to become a science specialist. Most elementary teachers, if required to select a specialty area, would gravitate toward the language arts (Tilgner, 1990).
Only if a per-school number of science specialists were required would the mark demands encourage teachers to focus in this area.
The research is based on the investigation of the survey of methods of instruction in primary science in schools in Abeokuta Education zone of Ogun State, such problems includes;
As regards generalist model of instruction, teachers will find it difficult to cope with the pupils especially if the classroom consist of many pupils. There will be so much work compiled on the teacher himself.
Regarding the specialist model, pupils will always see different faces on different occasion. That is having one teacher for one subject which will likely not make them move closer to their teachers.
Generalist model of instruction, when delivering they only deliver the little knowledge they have about the particular subject, while in specialist-model of instruction the teacher goes into full details when doing research on a particular subject.
This project is aimed at:
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research is limited to some nursery and primary schools teachers and some selected experienced parents who are interested in the training of primary school pupils. It is limited to some primary schools in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Due to insufficient fund and the expansion of the territory,y some primary school may be neglected.
This study is significance because:-
The policy maker educators, stakeholders will be equipped with information on the practices of schools with regards to the model of instruction.
The generalist model of delivery is of not much benefit to the teachers unlike the pupils, in the sense that when a teacher is handling two classes or even one and he is taking all subject like Mathematics, Yoruba, Basic Science, English Language e.t.c. It would look more complicated to him unlike someone in the specialist model of delivery that is specified to just one subject like basic science.
To the pupils they might prefer to have one teacher to teach them all subject because they would rather want to be under the control of just one particular teacher. It also form strong base of literature for students who are interested in the topic.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
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