AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

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[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
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Keywords: AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS


RESEARCH BODY

ABSTRACT

This research investigates into causes and effect of Examination Malpractices among Students in tertiary Institutions in Ogun State: (Polytechnics, Colleges of Education, and University).

Students were randomly selected in the sampled institutions to represent the entire population. On the whole 300 students were involved in the survey, this comprises of hundred (100) students each from the selected study areas, whom were purposively selected, owning to the heterogeneous nature of the entire population.The instrument used for the collection of data is a questionnaire designed by the researcher, which was given out to the respondents to fill and later retrieved. This method of data collection is termed primary method of data collection.Four null hypotheses were formulated, namely;

H1: There is no significant relationship between inadequacy of educational facilities and incidence of examination malpractice.

H2: There is no significant relationship between poor study habits of students and problems of examination malpractice.

H3: There is no significant relationship between inability of schools to cover prescribed syllabus and promotion of examination malpractice.

H4: Examination malpractice has no significant effects on our educational system.

The researcher made use of Chi-Square, a nonparametric method of analysis to justify the above hypotheses.

The result observed in the test of hypotheses shows that:

  1. There was a significant relationship between inadequacy of educational facilities and incidence of examination malpractice (The Chi-square statistic = 52.842 with 12 degree of freedom, and p < 0.001, the null hypothesis was rejected).
  2. There exit a significant relationship between poor study habits of students and problems of examination malpractice ( = 60.884 with 12 degree of freedom, and p < 0.001, the null hypothesis was rejected).
  3. There was a significant relationship between inability of schools to cover prescribed syllabus and promotion of examination malpractice ( = 135.885 with 12 degree of freedom, and p < 0.001, the null hypothesis was rejected).
  4. Examination malpractice has significant effects on our educational system ( = 631.785 with 12 degree of freedom, and p < 0.001, the null hypothesis was rejected).

Based on the above findings, some suggestions and recommendations were made.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Statement of the problem

1.2       Purpose of the study

1.3       Significant of study

1.4       Research question

1.4.1    Research hypotheses

1.5       Scope and limitation of study

1.6       Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Review of Related Literature

2.1       Literature Review

2.2       The trend of Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

2.3       Forms of Examination Malpractice

2.4       Agents of Examination Malpractice

2.5       Causes of Examination Malpractice

2.6       Effects of Examination Malpractice

2.7       Panacea for the Upliftment of Falling Academic Standard

2.9       Appraisal of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.0       Methodology

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population of the Study

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.4       Research Instruments                                                 

3.5       Validity and Reliability of the instruments

3.6       Method of data Collection

3.7       Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

4.1       Analysis of Data

4.2       The demographic information of the respondents

4.3       Inadequacy of Educational Facilities

4.4       Poor Study Habits

4.5       Inability of Schools to Cover Prescribed Syllabus

4.6       Effects of Examination Malpractices

4.7       Summary of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULT AND RECOMMENDATION

Discussion

Conclusion

Recommendation

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Examination malpractice is a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of Nigeria educational system.             It is more disturbing to note that those who supposed to wage war against this monster are aiding and abetting it. It is no longer new that school proprietors,administrators,parents,teachers,law enforcement agents and personnel of examination bodies are involved in examination malpractice.

Maduemezia (1998) and Mgbekem (2004),reported that the first examination malpractice in Nigeria occurred in 1914 during the Senior Cambridge Local Examination papers which were leaked before the schedule date of examination. Thus examination malpractice which started at a low trend became more pronounced in 1970.

Tsebam (1988), when malpractice in examination occurs, people no longer submit to rules that guide learning and conduct of examinations. This therefore is a serious fraud in Nigerian educational system.

In 1984, the Federal Government promulgated decree no 20, which stipulated twenty one (21) years imprisonment for offenders, as a punishment to serve as deterrent to other potential offenders. Despite the punitive measure put in place by the Government, the rate of examination malpractice continued to increase.

Ojerinde (2004), indicated that there was increase in the percentage of cancelled results by the National Examination Council (NECO) on account of examination malpractice between 2000 and 2003. While it was 4.61 percent in 2000, it increased to 5.61 percent, 13.28 percent and 19.66 percent in 2001, 2002, and 2003 respectively. In 2005 WAEC cancelled about 5 papers which had been written due to alleged mass examination malpractice.

Liman (1996), a 0ne time minister of education, examination ethics are the moral principles laid down for the conduct of an examination. It is the moral correctness of examination. On the other hand, examination ethics is the correct conduct and behavior which should underpin an examination system such that it gives validity and authenticity to the certification resulting from there.

Afigbo (1996), examination malpractice is any action done or committed which makes it impossible to use an examination in determining the level of competence of candidates in absorbing, reproducing and where appropriate knowledge is applied.

Mgbekem (2004), define examination malpractice as an organized cheating practice adopted by candidates of an examination who have no confidence in themselves to pass the examination.

Today, it is disheartening to note that examination malpractice is assuming a dangerous dimension in Nigerian educational system despite the various efforts aim at curbing it. Students and their collaborators have developed sophisticated methods of cheating before, during and after examinations.

It is therefore, the intention of this research to look into the causes, forms of cheating, effect of examination malpractice and how to eradicate the problems of malpractice.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research work is intended in finding:

  • Why students and non-students get involved in examination malpractice.
  • Forms of examination malpractice
  • Effects of examination malpractice on educational system
  • Possible means of eradicating examination malpractice.
    • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to investigate the various reasons why students indulge in examination malpractice and why teacher sometimes also indulge in examination malpractice.

Also, it is to look at the various forms of malpractice, effects and suggest means of eradicating the identified problems.

  • SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

Examination malpractice is now a general indisciplinaryproblem amongyouth  in our educational institutions, this problem is getting deeper into the Nigeria educational system. This study is to expose the potency of apparently ignored variables that contribute to and sustain examination malpractice.

Furthermore, from the findings of this research, appropriate measures to eradicate this menace will be suggested.

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

For the purpose of this project work, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. Does inadequacy of educational facilities contribute to the incidence of examination malpractice?
  2. Does poor study habits aggravate the problems of examination malpractice?
  3. Does the inability of schools to cover syllabus make the students cheat during examination?
  4. Does examination malpractice have effect on our educational system?

How can these problems be eradicated or curbed?

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: There is no significant relationship between inadequacy of educational facilities and incidence of examination malpractice.

H1: There is significant relationship between inadequacy of educational facilities and incidence of examination malpractice.

H0: There is no significant relationship between poor study habits of students and problems of examination malpractice.

H2: There is significant relationship between poor study habits of students and problems of examination malpractice.

H0: There is no significant relationship between inability of schools to cover prescribed syllabus and promotion of examination malpractice.

H3: There is significant relationship between inability of schools to cover prescribed syllabus and promotion of examination malpractice.

H0: Examination malpractice has no significant effects on our educational system.

H4: Examination malpractice has significant effects on our educational system.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

The study shall cover examination malpractice in higher institutions. The study has to x-ray the activities and operation of tertiary institutions in Ogun State.

However, the purposive method of data collection will be employed because of the heterogeneous location of the sample under study, limited time available to conclude the research, limited manpower and finance.

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • EXAMINATION: It can be defined as an assessment of students to ascertain to what extent they have benefited from the teaching of their teachers in a given subject.
  • MALPRACTICE: It is any action which makes it impossible to use examination in determining the level of students ability or it is any act of wrong doing which contradict the rules and regulations of examinations.
  • EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE: It is an attempt to gain an advantage to pass examination through illegal means such as bringing already prepared answer sheets, using impersonation, getting access to examination questions before the examination period.
  • IMPERSONATION: To pretend to be someone else. To write examination for someone.
  • SOCIAL MALAISE: A social feeling of anxiety, dissatisfaction and lack of confidence within a group of people that is not dearly understood or exposed.
  • MACHINERY: Someone employed to write examination on one’s behalf.
  • INDULGE: To let yourself do something that you enjoy especially something that is considered bad for you.
  • MACHIAVELLIAN: Using clever but immoral methods to get what you want.
  • GIRAFFE: This is the involvement of an examinee turning or stretching neck to read or check the script of another examinee with the aim of copying.
  • ECOMOG: (mass cheating). This is a massive agreement among candidates to assist one another in the examination hall.
  • WETIE: This is collusion between candidates and officials where candidates make advance monetary or materials inducement to examiners or officials for undue favour.
  • ASSAULT AND INTIMIDATION: These are practice whereby the candidates create confusion and commotion to create conducive atmosphere for their time.

TATOO: It isact of writing on palm, lap or any part of the body and thereafter referred to such writing inside the examination hall.

Keywords: AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS


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Keywords: AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

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