This study, AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE NEEDED TRAINING FOR LIBRARIANS FOR A BETTER USAGE OF DIGITAL LIBRARY contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.1.1 OVERVIEW OF DIGITIZATION
2.1.2 BENEFITS OF TRAINING LIBRARIANS FOR DIGITAL LIBRARY PROJECTS
2.1.3 SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES REQUIRED FOR DIGITIZATION
2.1.4 TRAINING NEEDS OF LIBRARIANS FOR DIGITAL LIBRARY PROJECTS
2.1.5 METHODS OF TRAINING LIBRARIANS FOR DIGITAL LIBRARY PROJECTS
2.1.6 CHALLENGES FACED IN TRAINING LIBRARIANS FOR DIGITAL LIBRARY PROJECTS
2.1.7 STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING THE TRAINING OF LIBRARIANS FOR DIGITAL LIBRARY PROJECTS
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.5 SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
University libraries are part of university system. These libraries support the objectives of the university which include teaching, learning and research at high levels. They are the heart of the intellectual life of academic communities basically established to provide information materials of all sorts to back up the academic programs of the university. Agboola (2005) declared that University libraries are very important components of university institutions. This is because no academic excellence will be achieved without a good library to back up its teaching, research and other community service mandates. Today, in this information age, university libraries are no longer confined to buildings on campuses but they are a new hybrid learning space, serving a far broader purpose. They contain documents in organized electronic forms, available on the internet or CD-ROM (Compact-disk read-only-memory) disks etc. (Digital Dictionary, 2008). Lombardi (2000:1) noted the following dialogue: I don’t need the library, it’s too big, too complicated, and anyway, everything worth having is on the internet”, the bright eager undergraduate answered the ancient faculty librarian who recommended using the library. “Anyway, the library’s catalog is on-line, and I can look at it if I need stuff”. She concluded. “But maybe, you’ll need one of the real books that they have in the library”. She concluded, “But probably not, and anyway, if there is a source online, I’ll always use it before anything in the library. Conversations like this appear with increasing frequency among students, university dons and researchers. Students of the 21st century see the traditional library as mostly irrelevant, housing old and obsolete materials and they have little patience with the formal organizational structure of the library and the authority of librarians. Covi and Cragin (2004), in agreement with the above dialogue, discovered that students and faculty increasingly demand and prefer access to electronic sources delivery system as well as 24 hours a day 7 days a week networked information. This underscores the urgent need for modernization by digitization of University libraries. The history of any university library is associated with the history of its parent institution. Federal university libraries in Nigeria share similar historical antecedents with their parent institution. According to the university of PortHarcourt website http://www.uniport.edu.ng university of Port-Harcourt library (Donald Ekong Library) was established in 1976 when the university itself was born. The library has five major units with several divisions. Though they took off humbly with few collections and members of staff, at present there is a tremendous improvement in these areas as well as introduction of electronic services to their clientele. The university of Benin website http://www.uniben.edu.ng revealed that University of Benin library (John Harris Library) came into existence in the year 1970 and it is the oldest academic library in Edo & Delta State. They provide e-learning centers as well as e-Granary database on many subject areas to their library users. Furthermore, University of Calabar website http://www.unical.edu.ng disclosed that their library was established in 1975 as Calabar campus of the University of Nigeria Nsukka and became autonomous in October 1976. The library among other services rendered to their customers, offer some electronic services to their library clientele/users. Finally, University of Uyo website http://www.uniuyo.edu.ng showed that their library (Nyong Essien Library) is a multilibrary system with a centralized administrative structure, started operation in October 1 1991. There are three major divisions and five service locations in this library. They offer many other services including global information access through the Internet connectivity. The strides in digital technology and its applications have fundamentally changed the way.
Library is an organization for the acquisition, organization and dissemination of information for specified users. It is a link between the user and the information that has been created. Academic library is a library in higher institution of learning such as that of university, polytechnic, monotechnics and the colleges of education. Edoka (2002) explains that these are largely tertiary educational institutions, usually available after secondary education. Librarians as information gate keepers are in charge of selection, development, organization and maintenance of library collections and provide advisory services for users. Rubin (2004) noted that they are involved in the acquisition, and organization of library materials and dissemination of same to library users. Librarians are professionally trained persons responsible for the care of a library and its contents, including the selection, processing and organization of materials and the delivery of information, instruction, and loan services to meet the needs of its users. Digital libraries emerged as a result of information explosion and the use of ICT in management and organization of information. These are libraries with digital resources and specialized staff for the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. Fox (2012) pointed out that digital library is an organization, which might be visual, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for posterity digital contents and offer to its users communities specialized functionality on that content of measurable quality and according to codified policies. Egun (2006) pointed out that the 21st century library is described s a digital library, but emphasized that high illiteracy and very low ICT literacy jeopardizes the library as a digital library. Rather the 21st century library is a combination of digital and traditional library collections or rather what is often regarded as a hybrid library. Screenivasulu (2000) defined digital librarian as one who manages large amount of data, preserve unique collection, provide faster access to information, facilitates dealing with data from more than one location and enhance distributed learning environment. Rao and Babu (2001) identified the role of librarians in internet and web environment as intermediary facilitator and end – user trainer, website builder, researcher, interface designer, knowledge manager and sifter of information resources. Choi (2006) noted that digital libraries are the future of academic and research institutions. Therefore, digital professionals are required to have more breadth and depth of knowledge and skills access the dimensions of traditional library knowledge, technology and human relations. Sreenivasulu (2000) inferred that the overall competencies in digital library management are called Digital Information System Management. This involves issue such as knowledge, know-how, skills and attitudes necessary to create store, analyze, organize, retrieve, and disseminate digital information (texts, images, sounds) in digital libraries. He recognizes digital librarian as guardian of information super high way, global digital library, as a symbiotic human machine guru (intermediary) navigation /browsing and filtering, multimedia search and retrieval coordination, as interface functions and digital information access.
The digital environment is creating a new platform for librarians to operate on. Arif and Mahmood (2010) noted that the digital environment is also a world of web 2.0 technologies as an emerging trend. They maintain that web 2.0 is used to provide library services especially in public service division. Such services include instant messaging and social networking (blogging electronic group, Wikis, RSS and podcasting) services. The new environment requires librarians to acquire new skills and abilities to succeed in the environment. For example, internet skill is required for the adoption of web 2.0 technologies for the library services. Information communication technology (ICT) literacy skill is indispensable to functioning effectively in the environment. ICT literacy skill comprises of computer and internet literacy skills. Therefore, librarians need to be trained to be creating and updating library websites, working successfully with co-workers and interacting with users. LIS service delivery had shifted from the traditional modes to electronic and web based formats to carry out some job functions successfully in a shortest time without exerting much energy. Goodrich and Singer (2009) in the same vein noted that skills are the manual and mental capabilities acquired through training and work experience, the application of knowledge gained through education or training and practical experience. Skills can be grouped into general and domain specific skills. Some general skills include time management, team work and leadership, motivation and others, whereas domain specific skills would be useful only for a certain job. CARL (2010) enumerated skills to be possessed by the librarians in the digital environment as foundational knowledge interpersonal skills, leadership and management collection development, information literacy research and contribution to the profession, and information technology skills. CARL (2010) emphasized that academic library is constantly challenged to remain vital part of the changing environment. However, the change in the nature and role of libraries vis-à-vis the digital environment has brought about the need for the development and acquisition of new skills.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Librarians are faced with the challenges of fast change in the method of library operations and services, from traditional/manual method to digital method and this can be attributed to the introduction of digitization and digital initiatives in libraries. Each and every library is slowly getting digitized and most university libraries in Nigeria like University of Nigeria Nsukka, University of Jos, University of Ibadan, University of Port Harcourt, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, University of Uyo, University of Calabar etc, have or are in the process of digitizing their library collections. Studies also, revealed that with about a hundred Universities (federal, state and private) in Nigeria, only a handful is making effort to digitize their operations (Iwhiwhu & Eyekpegha, 2007) and this can be attributed to lack of trained librarians that possess the skills and knowledge needed to manage and operate the digital and electronic library services. The importance of digitizing library resources especially in academic libraries include among others quick access to useful, relevant and up-to-date information materials, integrated resource sharing as well as meeting the needs of users who increasingly demand and prefer access to electronic source delivery system to other categories of libraries. When library collections are digitized, it will help Nigerian librarians to compete favorably with their colleagues in other parts of the world as well as preserving our local contents in digital forms for globalization and localization frame work. The actualization of the above, require skills and competencies which propel the present information society. Studies by Ojedukun & Okafor (2011) and Ugwu & Ekere (2010) from their findings declared that librarians do not possess the skills required for digitization because they were not adequately trained and recommended that they should be trained and retrained so as to acquire the skills. Most librarians have low web technology, yet they are 8 expected as information managers, professionals and gateways to render library services using these technological tools especially the Internet as well as being champions of this fast change and challenges brought about by digitization which of course, require training, retraining and reequipping of librarians. One may ask will librarians affect these changes with their traditional method of modus operandi. If they do, they will be irrelevant and can easily be displaced. To support the above statement, Omekwu (2009) declared that digitization has made skills to become both generic and multi-disciplinary. In other words, if librarians refuse to upgrade, and improve on their traditional skills, and become responsive to these changes brought about by digital innovations through training, retraining and retooling other professionals from computer science and electronic engineering can step into the librarian’s role and apply their digital expertise and know-how. This shows that there is a gap that needs to be filled in order to improve on the general training of librarians and the methods of training them hence, the need for this study which is to know the training needs of librarians for digital library projects in the federal university libraries in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the training needs of librarians for digital library projects in federal university libraries in South -South zone of Nigeria. However, the specific objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions formulated from the purpose of the study guided this study:
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