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Keywords:APPRAISAL OF SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES IN THE OLD PEOPLE’S HOME
Background of the Study
Ageing process is a biological reality which has it own dynamics, largely beyond human control. However, it is subject to the constructions by which each society makes senses of old age.
In the developed world, chronological time plays a paramount role the age between 60 and 65 years is (retirement age) in most developed countries, is said to be the beginning of old age. In many parts of the developing world, chronological time has little or no importance in the meaning of old age, other socially constructed meaning of age are more significant such as the role assigned to older people, in some case it is the loss of roles accompanying physical decline which is significant in defining old age. Thus in contrast to the chronological rule which marks life stages in the developed world, old age in many developing countries is seem to begin at the pint when active contribution is no longer possible(Gorman 2000).
Age classification varied between countries many times the definition is linked to the retirement age, which in some instances was lower for women than men. This transition in livelihood becomes the basis for the definition of old age which occurred between the ages of 45 and 55 years, for women and between the ages of 55 and 75 years for men (Thane 1978).
According to Glascock (1980) study result published and provides a basis for a definition of old age in developing countries. There are four main categories; chronological, change in social role, change in work patterns, adult status of children and menopause and change in social and change in capacities, i.e. invalid status, senility and change in physical characteristics. Results form this cultural analysis of old age suggested that change in social role is the predominant means of defining old age. As people enter old age, their self definitions of old age become decreasingly multifaceted and increasingly related to health status (Brubaker 1975, Johnson 1976 and Frend 1997).
Old age generally refers to individuals in the last stage of their life span, all human beings starts ageing from the day of their birth. It is difficult to determine a definite age for this state, some says everyone over fifty five is old; some, every one sixty, and other believe everyone over sixty-five, still others say that there are really aged people, those over seventy-five years of age. This group is often referred to as the old-age or the frail elderly.
It true that the world’s population overall will increase by roughly one third over the next 40 years, from 6.9 to 9.1 billion. According to United Nation pollution (UN) Divisions, but this will be a very different kind of population growth than ever- before-driven not by birth rate, which have plummeted around the world, but primarily by a increase in the number of elderly people. In directly the global population of children under 5 is expected fall by 49 million as of mid century while the numbers of people over 60 will grow by 1.2 billion.
One reason is just that most people are living to advanced old age, but just as significant is the enormous bulge of people born in the first few decades after World War 11. Both the United State and ?Western Europe saw particularly dramatic increase in both rates during the 1940 and 1950, as returning veterans made up for last time. In the 1960s and 1970s much of the developing world also experienced baby boom, but for a different reason, stinking declines in infant and child mortality. As these global baby boomer ages, they will create population explosion of senior. Currently there is sharp up tick in people turning 60, in anther 20 years, we will see an explosion in the numbers turning 80, most of the rest of the world will follow the same course in the next few decades.
Old people in the World population are also known as demographic ageing and population ageing is a summary term for shifts in the age distribution (i.e. age structure) o a population towards old ages. A direct consequences of the ongoing global fertility transition (decline) and of mortality decline at older age, population ageing is expected to be among the most prominent global demographic trends of the 21st century population ageing is progressing rapidly in many industrialized countries, but those developing countries whose fertility decline began relatively early also experiencing rapid increase in their proportion of elderly people in which Nigeria is not an exception. This pattern is expected to continue over the next few decades, eventually affecting the entire world, population ageing has many important socio-economic and health consequences including the increase in the old age depending ratio, it presents challenges for public health concerns over possible bankruptcy of Medicare and related programmes as well for economic development shrinking and ageing of labour force.
Ageing population is expected to have profound effects on the way societies care for their elderly in general.
In many parts of the world, especially in the developed nations, older people who can not work and have health problem live in long time care facilities such as nursing home and old people home, where they receive care 24 hours a day. Institutionalization of older person is hardly practised in Nigeria. Most prominent one in Nigeria is situated in Yaba, Lagos State.
Ordinarily, Nigeria as a traditionally conscious society, old people are expected to be taken of by there children. Most of the very old people in the recent past live with their children except for those who are very rich and comfortable others who do not live with their children, members of different generations often visit one another and provide help in emergencies.
As globalization and industrialization increase, there is unprecedented rise in people desire to get an official job; every members of the family have been one way or the either occupied leaving no one to take care of the elderly. The social changes and diffusion of European culture into our society has made many children denied their parents of living with them and since they have lesser time, the attention for their parent will drastically reduce. Although moral and cultural influences continue to pressure the children to take care of their parents. Yet, social changes and industrialization has made it increasingly difficult. Thus the family as a social institution that s to take care of the older persons has weakened in performing this role.
Elderly people themselves often display high levels of morale. Satisfaction with life and feelings of self-worth. The task of our evolving modern societies is to ensure that the aged have their needs met and that they have the resources to continue to function in the community.
The above submission has prescribed the various challenges limitating against the care of the elderly in the world. It has been established that a number of institution can not care for the increasing number of older person thereof; care of older person is not optimal. In the course of this development, it is necessary to engage challenges posed by lack of optimal care for older person that has been attributed to decline in traditional family system that used to care for the elderly. This is because they have not served in the formal sector and even pension as source of income to the elderly is eroded by inflation (Gauchi, 2002).
Since it is impossible to survey the care to all elderly in Nigeria. Hence, this research pursue the investigation concerning the care of old people with a view to addressing challenges that emanate from limited attention being given to their care using old people home in Yaba Lagos State as case study.
1.2 Statement of Problems
The traditional family system that naturally cared for older person has weaned in Nigeria. Hence, caring for older persons do involve institutionalization such as old peoples home. Therefore, it is necessary to assess if old people’s home are functional, hence this truly assess old people’s home in Yaba Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is generally to;
- Document the social and economic condition of older person
- To document services at the old people home
- To document the challenges in the old people’s home
- To give suggestions on how to enhance the care and condition of older persons in old people home.
1.4 Research Question
The study attempts to proffer answers to the following questions:
- What is the social and condition of older person in old people’s home?
- What are the welfare services available for the older person in old home?
- What are the challenges of the care of older person?
- How can the challenges be addressed?
1.5 Significance of Study
The outcome of this study will educate people on the present condition of the older persons in Nigeria. In general the socio-economic factors militating against the coping capabilities of the old people in general especially those in old people home and modalities to solving these problems. The study is to give reasonable suggestion which when adopted could assist in surmounting the socio economic challenges of older persons. This will procure information that will assist government in caring for the older person.
While, the society in general, corporate organization institutional bodies, non-governmental organization, professionals and religious bodies, age-grade groups, government, social workers and other role players in the care of the elderly will definitely find this work piece a useful guide for the effective delivery of services to older persons.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study adopts the old people’s home in Yaba, Lagos State as a case study in order to concisely examine and appraise, coupled with gathered data, the social welfare services available for the old people in Nigeria. This is because there limited number of these facilities in Nigeria, the scope of this study comfortably accommodates frame of work for appraising the welfare services available for old people.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The study only examines variables such as economy, social, health and housing as a precursor to measure the social and economic condition of the aged, since there are few to such facilities in Nigeria (old people home) the study is limited to relying on the information and data gathered from Yaba, old people’s home alone.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms are used in the study and they imply the operational meaning defined here in.
- Older People: These are people above the age of 65 years.
- Old People’s Home: This is a place where old people live and they are looked after.
- Institutionalization: This refers to the committing by a society of an individual to a particular institution such as a mental and old people institution.
- Social Welfare Services: This is about how people, communities and institution in a society takes action to provide certain minimum standard and certain opportunities. It is generally about helping people facing contingencies.
Keywords: APPRAISAL OF SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES IN THE OLD PEOPLE’S HOME
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