This study,AN ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
1.1 Introduction/ Background of the Study
Human trafficking is the trade in humans, most commonly for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others (UNODC, 2011); it is equally an attempt for the extraction of organs or tissues, including surrogacy and ova removal; or for providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage. Human trafficking can be within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim’s rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade in people, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another. Human trafficking represents an estimated $31.6 billion of international trade per annum in 2010 (Haken, Jeremy, 2011). Human trafficking is thought to be one of the fastest-growing activities of transnational criminal organizations.
Human trafficking is condemned as a violation of human rights by international conventions. In addition, human trafficking is subject to a directive in the European Union. (Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2011).
Women and children make up the vast majority of the human trafficking chain. This is a result of push factors that are rooted in poverty, inequality and discrimination, resulting in survival strategies that expose the most vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. Pull factors include the lure of opportunity and huge economic differentials that make even relatively poor neighboring regions seem a likely source of livelihood; as well as the lucrative trade in adoption and organ transplants.
In Africa, over 50,000 victims are believed to be trafficked annually according to the U.S. Department of State, although the extent of trafficking is not well documented (Human Right report, 2001). Like elsewhere, poverty and the low status of women are major contributing factors in Nigeria. In addition, wars and civil strife engulfing countries like Sudan and Rwanda, as well as the indifference of some governments make women and children vulnerable to trafficking (John and Karin, 1998).
Trafficking in children for labour is a serious problem in Togo and Benin as well as Botswana, Zaire, Somalia, Ethiopia, Zambia, Nigeria, Algeria where victims are trafficked to Nigeria, Gabon, Ghana and South Africa. Africans, especially women from Nigeria are trafficked to Western Europe and the Middle East (John and Karin, 1998). The trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation is a high-profit, low-risk trade for those who organize it, but it is detrimental to the millions of women and children exploited in slavery-like conditions in the global sex industry. This trade, which the former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has called an outrage and a worldwide plague (Annan, 2000), is conducted throughout the world with near impunity, in many cases carrying penalties far less severe than drug trafficking (Richard, 1999). According to United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (article 3 (a)), trafficking in human beings refers to the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. Globalization and increasing structural disparity between North and South have led to an endless flow of people migrating from the “South” to the “North,” in search of a better life, or to escape discrimination and oppression. As documented and undocumented migrant workers or as mail-order brides, these men and women are exposed to various forms of exploitation, both in the process of migration and in their destination country.
The most conspicuous form of this kind of exploitative migration is human trafficking. Often described as a “contemporary form of slavery,” it is accompanied by serious human rights violations. The most common form of trafficking involves women and children who are trafficked to work in the sex industry. These victims are very often scarred physically and psychologically from their experiences. Numerous UN documents, including the declaration on the elimination of violence against women, indicate clearly that trafficking constitutes violence against women.
Nigerians are generally poor financially, with about two-thirds living in rural areas and earning less than $1 per day. The income level amongst the population and level of education, especially amongst women is very low. As a result of poverty and a lack of income generating opportunities at home, more and more women, especially young women, are migrating in order to be able to provide for their families, both within their country and overseas. The trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation is accompanied by potentially life long and/or life-threatening health consequences; it prevents victims from attaining the highest possible level of physical, mental and social well-being. Victims’ health is affected by the trafficking process itself and also by sexual exploitation. Clandestine migration often requires sub-optimal means of transportation, putting the victims at risk for starvation, drowning, suffocation and exposure to the elements. Numerous reports of accidents and deaths have caused the International Organization for Migration to identify trafficking as the most dangerous form of migration (Gushulak and MacPherson, 2000). Other health risks in transit include exposure to violence and communicable diseases. Despite the lack of concrete data, the trafficking of women and children for sexual Abdulraheem and Oladipo exploitation all over the world has become a very visible phenomenon on the ground.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Trafficking in human beings is a global issue, but a lack of systematic research means that reliable data on the trafficking of human beings that would allow comparative analyses and the design of counter measures is scarce. Hence, the need for this research tailored to access the effects child and human trafficking with special reference Lagos State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this research is to access Human trafficking in Nigeria with special reference to Lagos state.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
H01– Human trafficking has no significant impact on the life of the victims.
H02– Level of education and poverty has no significant impact in determining the victims of trafficking.
1.6 Significance of the study
This is the value or contributions which the study is going to make to either individuals, public or government. It implies the benefits derivable in the study to the entire society. It is worthy of note that this research will be of benefit to scholars (students), concerned stakeholders, Non-Governmental Organizations and government at large.
1.7 Scope of the Study
For the purpose of this study, we shall only consider Lagos as our area of study. Hence, this study is limited in scope to Lagos State as other locations will not be considered.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Human: Relating to or characteristic of humankind.
Trafficking: Trafficking involves transporting people away from the communities in which they live and forcing them to work against their will using violence, deception or coercion.
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