ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN- ENERGY MALNUTRITION

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN- ENERGY MALNUTRITION
[icon type=”icon-book”]: Chapter 1 – 5
[icon type=”icon-book-open”]: 87 Pages
[icon type=”icon-basket”]: #3, 000
[icon type=”icon-doc-line”]: Ms Word format

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Keywords:ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN- ENERGY MALNUTRITION


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RESEARCH BODY

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the relationship between some trace elements and antioxidant enzymes was carried out on 98 under-five children with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and 98 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy children (control). The malnourished children involve those with Marasmus, Kwashiorkor and Marasmic-kwashiorkor. Venous blood (2ml) was collected from both PEM children and control for biochemical analysis using standard methods. Results obtained show that mean serum total protein (55.76±3.95) and albumin (26.43±2.78) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (1.87±0.32) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (42.38±5.03) activities in malnourished children were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in the control. Mean serum zinc (Zn) concentrations (8.37±4.25) in malnourished children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control (5.14±2.39), but mean serum copper (Cu) concentrations in malnourished (2.40±1.12) children were lower than in the control (2.82±1.18). There were correlations between these serum levels of trace elements (Zn and Cu) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) in children with PEM and control. Marasmus (SOD-Zn: 0.03, SOD-Cu: 0.16, GPx-Zn: -0.14, GPx-Cu: 0.05), kwashiorkor (SOD-Zn: -0.39, SOD-Cu: -0.39, GPx-Zn: -0.54, GPx-Cu: -0.31), marasmic-kwashiorkor (SOD-Zn: -0.31, SOD-Cu: -0.51, GPx-Zn: -0.41, GPx-Cu: -0.48) and control (SOD-Zn: 0.12, SOD-Cu: 0.07, GPx-Zn: -0.07, GPx-Cu: -0.08). This study points to the fact that children with PEM are predisposed to high oxidative stress due to an increase in free radical production and decrease in antioxidant defense system. Therefore, routine laboratory investigation of antioxidants should be done for effective management of PEM.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

1.3 Justification for the Study

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Prevalence of PEM

2.2 Assessment of Nutritional Status

2.2.1 Clinical assessment

2.2.2 Anthropometric assessment

2.2.3 Dietary intake assessment

2.2.4 Biochemical assessment

2.3 Classification of PEM

2.3.1 Marasmus

2.3.2 Kwashiorkor

2.3.3 Marasmic-kwashiorkor

2.4 Complications of PEM

2.4.1 Infection

2.4.2 Diarrhoea and dehydration

2.4.3 Heart failure

2.4.4 Hypothermia

2.5 Prevention and Treatment of PEM

2.6 Free Radicals

2.7 Antioxidants

2.7.1 The need for antioxidants defense

2.7.2 Mechanisms of antioxidant functions

2.7.3 Enzymatic antioxidants and their cofactors

2.7.4 Cofactors

2.7.5 Non-enzymatic antioxidants

2.7.6 Oxidative stress

2.8 Roles of Trace Elements in Nutrition

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Materials

3.1.1 Study location

3.1.2 Study population

3.1.3 Inclusion criteria for patients

3.1.4 Inclusion criteria for control

3.1.5 Exclusion criteria

3.16 Informed consent

3.1.7 Ethical approval

3.1.8 Sample size determination

3.1.9 Sampling techniques

3.1.10 Blood sample collection

3.1.11 Chemicals

3.1.12 Equipment

3.2 Methods

3.2.1 Questionnaire

3.2.2 Measurement of Biochemical Parameters

3.2.2.1 Serum total protein

3.2.2.2 Serum albumin

3.2.2.3 Serum zinc and copper

3.2.2.4 Serum Superoxide Dismutase

3.2.2.5 Serum glutathione peroxidase

3.2.3 Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

4.1 Characteristics of Study Population

4.2 Feeding Characteristics of PEM Patients

4.3 Serum Biochemical Parameters in PEM Patients

4.4 Serum Total Protein and Albumin Levels in PEM Patients

4.5 Serum concentrations of some Trace Elements in PEM patients

4.6 Serum Levels of some Antioxidants Enzymes in PEM Patients

4.7 Pearson’s Correlation between some Trace Elements and Antioxidant Enzymes in PEM Patients

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Summary

6.2 Conclusion

6.3 Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

Keywords: ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN- ENERGY MALNUTRITION


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Keywords: ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME TRACE ELEMENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN- ENERGY MALNUTRITION

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