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This study is to investigate the Attitudinal Response Towards Ebola Prevention Among Student. A case study of Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Ogun state. Employing the simple and purposive Random Sampling Method, a 20 questions item questionnaire was used to gather the data for the study. 100 questionnaire was distributed to both male and female in the five schools (i.e School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Education, School of Languages, School of Science and School of Vocational Education) at Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta as a case study area. The data collected were analyzed number of respondents and simple percentage. Based on the findings, necessary recommendations were made in Preventing Ebola Virus Disease such as washing of hands routinely, knowing what the symptoms of Ebola virus are, Avoid areas that are having Ebola virus outbreak etc. Also, in order to prevent Ebola virus Disease, the government should as a matter of urgency, formulate, and implement a health policy that will help in combating the infection. Finally, people should be health educated on the mode of transmission of Ebola virus, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and the need to observe hygiene practices, including regular hand washing with soap and clean water.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problems
1.3 Significance of the Study
1.4 Purpose of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitations of the Study
2.1 Literature Review
2.1.1 Theories of Attitudes
2.1.2 Consistency Theories
2.1.3 Learning Theories
2.1.4 Social Judgment Theory
2.1.5 Theories of Diseases Prevention
2.2 What is Health?
2.3 History of Ebola Virus
2.4 What is Ebola Virus Disease (EDV)?
2.4.1 How is Ebola Spread?
2.4.2 How is Ebola transmitted?
2.4.3 Transmission to Humans
2.4.4 Ebola Disease in Humans
2.5 The Spread of Ebola out of Africa
2.6 Causes of Ebola Virus Disease
2.6.1 Causes and Origin
2.6.2 Symptoms and Diagnosis
2.6.3 Clinical Signs and Symptoms
2.7 Prevention of Ebola Virus Disease
2.7.1 Prevention and Control
2.7.3 Treatment of EbolaVirus by Doctors
2.8 Facts about Ebola
2.9 The Effects of EbolaVirus on People Cultural Attitude
2.10 Effects of Ebola virus on Education
2.11 Effects of EbolaVirus on the Nation.
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.4 Research Instrument
3.5 Validation of Instrument
3.6 Method of Data Collection
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.2 Research Question and Analysis
5.4 Recommendations for Further Studies
Health is the absence of any disease or impairment. It is a state that allows individual to adequately cope with all demands of daily life (implying also the absence of disease and impairment). It is a state of balance, an equilibrium that an individual has established within himself and between himself and his social and physical environment.
According to World Health Organization (1948), health is define as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
A health system’s primary objective should be the improvement of the population’s health. To advance this goal, policymakers must concentrate on disease prevention and health promotion, rather than on health care services, which largely address the symptoms of diseases that have already manifested.
Khan A.S. (1999) opined that an effective health system must be public health oriented in order to eliminate the underlying causes of disease, thereby avoiding unnecessary costs and morbidity.
Health promotion and disease prevention have a far greater impact on health status than do health care services.
The ministries of health (1998) explains that government departments, donor organizations civil society groups and communities themselves are the most important factors of health.
The World Health Organizations work on health and development tries to make sense of these complex links. It is concerned with the impact of better health on development and poverty reduction, and conversely, with the impact of development polices on the achievement of health goals, it aims to ensure that health is prioritized within overall economic and development plans.
According to Advisory committee on dangerous pathogens (2000), health can be improved not only through the consumption of health care services,but also through individual behaviour and lifestyle choices such as quitting smoking, eating more nutritious foods and getting more exercise. Administration polices focus on the reducing of cost growth, improving quality, and expanding access to health insurance through an emphasis on private sector and market based solutions.
The attitude of people to health are experiences of loss can affect one’s health negatively, but some people maintain a positive health attitude despite these unwelcome events which gives rise to a variety of positive health related consequences.
Mossey and Shapiro, (1982) declared some of the attitudes to health by the people. Like any attitude, which comprises a summary evaluation, favorable or unfavorable, of a concept, object, or situation, one’s health attitude is the overall evaluation of one’s health, as excellent good, fair, or poor. A positive health attitude typically reflects an objective health status that is also positive. Many large-scale surveys of population health such as physician ratings, utilization of health services, diagnosed chronic conditions or days of reduced activity due to health problems, and poor self-rated health has been shown to predict mortality. A positive health attitude is also likely to be associated with consistent beliefs and behaviours. Someone with apositive health attitude might hold the consistent belief that he or she is not highly susceptibly to disease, where as someone with a negative health-enhancing behaviours such as exercise.
According to health experts, the primary, secondary and Tertiary prevention are the three terms that map out the range of interventions available to health.
World Health Organization (1988) opines that the primary prevention aims to prevent disease or injury before it ever occurs. This is done by preventing exposures to hazard that cause disease or injury, altering unhealthy or unsafe behaviours that can lead to disease or injury should exposure occur; example include the use of seatbelts and bike helmets, eating well exercising regularly, not smoking, immunization against infectious diseases.
Secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of a disease or injury that has already occurred. Peter C.J (1996) etal agreed that the secondary prevention is done by detecting and trains disease or injury as soon as possible to halt or slow its progress, encouraging personal strategies to prevent re-injury or recurrence, and implementing programs to return people to their original health and function to prevent long-term problems. Examples include: Regular exams and screening tests to detect disease in its earliest stage (e.gmammorgrams to detect breast cancer) daily, low-dose aspirins and or diet and exercise programs to prevent further heart attacks or ill workers can return safety to their jobs
Tertiary prevention according to (Richard G.A and Murphy.S (2000) aims to soften the impact of an ongoing illness or injury that has lasting effects. This is done by helping people manage long-term, often complex health problems and injuries (e.g chronic diseases, permanent impairments) in order to improve as much as possible their ability to function, their quality of life and life expectancy. Examples include: cardiac or stroke rehabilitationprograms, chronic disease management programs (e.g for diabetes, arthritis, depression etc) support groups that allow members to share strategies for living well, vocational rehabilitation programs to retrain workers for new job when they have recovered as much as possible.
According to World Health Organization(2008) Ebola Virus Disease (also known as Ebolahemorrhagicfeval is a rare sever disease, often fatal caused by the infection with a species of Ebola Virus. Ebola virus disease is a severe acute viral disease often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. It is transmitted by or through direct contact with blood or other bodily fluids (e.g Saliva, urine) from infected people, dead or alive. This includes unprotected sexual contact with patients up to seven weeks after they have recovered. One can also contact the disease from direct contact with blood and other bodily fluids from wild animals dead or alive, such as monkeys, forest antelopes, rodents and bats. Ebolavirus does not transmit through the air as influenza does. After two days and up to 21 days following exposure to the virus the disease may start suddenly with fever muscle pain etc. there is no specific vaccine or treatment for the disease, but the World Health Organization and other regulatory partners are currently working to identify potential viable treatments.
Effective prevention of Ebolahemorrhagic fever in Nigeria should involve the patients, the health workers, the community and the government, through collaborative efforts.
According to Gradon J. (2000); Ebola patients should be encouraged to report to hospital for medical care. The patients should be placed on balanced diet to boost their immune system. They must be given water regularly proper hydration. They should also be given appropriate drugs to prevent, and or cure other associated diseases. Strict barriers treatment of Ebola patents should be enforced.
Taylor R. (2000): Medical doctors, nurses and other health workers who have contact with the patients must be given personal protective equipment to prevent them from having physical contact with the blood, urine, faeces, saliva or any other fluid of Ebola patients. Terminal disposal should be carried out on the clothing, bed sheeting and any other material used by the patients, when they are discharged from hospital, or when they eventually die.
According to Judaic (1998) congregations of people in markets, places of worship, social and cultural activities should be discouraged during Ebola epidemics, and all public swimming pools should be closed until Ebola is brought under control. The public should be health educated on the mode of transmission of Ebola fever, signs and symptoms, preventive measures, and the need to observe hygiene practices, including regular hand washing with soap. Thecultural and traditional practice of washing corpses of Ebola fever, and physical handling of the corpses preparatory to burial should be stopped.
Since Ebola is so dangerous, the Federal State, and the local government should, as a matter of urgency, formulate, and implement a health policy that will help in combating the infection. The Government should embark on free medical treatment of all Ebola patients. This will encourage patients to report to hospitals for treatments, and to discourage concealment of cases.
International cooperation from world Health Organization (WHO), world food programme (WFP), Non-governmental organization (NGO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) United Nation Emergency Scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) are imperative in combating Ebola.
Above all health education of the masses is highly imperative to eradicate superstitious beliefs and to equip individuals with all the facts about Ebola fever.
The cultural sector supports members states World Wide by promoting international cooperation for safe guarding cultural heritage and by creating institutional and professional environments favorable to its sustainable safe-guarding.
Baron RC, ZubeirD.A (1983) discuss that the spread of Ebola infection, is further aggravated by the strength of some negative values beliefs, norms and attitudes which are deeply noted in the cultural traditions due mainly to low level of literacy. This is not to say that all the cultural practices relating to health are bad. But some traditional cultural value, and practices are highly detrimental to the prevention of Ebola. An example is the tradition of bathing the corpse before burial. The tradition of staying with the dead body overnight, including the burial of the dead at home.These practices also allows personal and unprotected contact with the corpse, and may quicken Ebola transmission among the relatives of the dead. Inimical cultural and traditional practices should be abrogated and or suspended during the time of Ebolascourge.
The education sector according to Dowell SF, and Mukunu R. (1999) supports member states to foster high quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all of relevance to the Ebola virus Disease response, the sector supports ministries of education to develop risk-reduction analysis and strategies and to develop comprehensive school health programmes that are capable of addressing a health emergency before it even starts. Education sector expertise also seeks to expand innovative learning opportunities through radio and other information and communication technologies (ICT), with a specific focus on mobile learning for students and teachers. For examples, UNESCO will provide support to an (Education by Radio programmed). Which has been initiated by the liberate ministry of education to provide continuity of teaching and learning. These technologies can playa key role in the Ebola virus disease response, providing an alternative method for education, delivery when it is not possible to keep schools and colleges open. In both formal and non formal education programmes, including TVET and skills development, UNESCO will also seek o skills to support the development and dissemination of learning resource materials with accurate messages on Ebola prevention, care and other health issues, for example through its Bouba and Zaza childhood culture series. Achievements and lessons learned from the education sector’s experience working to address stigma and discrimination will also be taken into consideration in the design and planning of activities, especially those learned from the teaching respect for all programmers and the HIV and AIDs response.
The present study focuses on the attitudinal response towards Ebola prevention among Students in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Area of Ogun State as a case study Area.
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