AVAILABILITY AND USAGE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

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This study, AVAILABILITY AND USAGE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: AVAILABILITY AND USAGE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE


RESEARCH BODY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Science is the bedrock of technological development. Ogunleye(2002) defined science as a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the working of our world today. Countries all over the world are striving to improve their technological know-how and this can only be achieved through a solid foundation in science and technology studies. Having a solid foundation in sciences entails making students have keen interest in science (by extension Integrated Science) right from their Junior Secondary School level of education. Many research findings have shown that Secondary School Students exhibit dwindling interest in science subject (Esiobu, 2005).

Afuwape et. al.  (2004) cited by Oludipe (2001) reported that researches on the reasons for the lack of interest in science among students included: lack of qualified teachers, lack of practical works, insufficient allotment of time for Integrated Science on the school time-table and poor method of teaching, non/poor use of instructional materials etc. These he maintained were among the major factors militating the successful implementation of the core curriculum in Integrated Science. For a start, there was therefore, the need to investigate the effects of the use of instructional materials on students‟ performance in Integrated Science.

Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are rested to impact information to students in the educational process.Instructional materials include items such as: kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers,pictures, recording videos etc.Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. Itenhances the memory level of the students. At this time that education has spread wide and entirely,oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to useinstructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006).

According to Abdullahhi (2010), instructional materials are tools locally made or importedthat help to facilitate the teaching/learning process. Obanga (2005) view them as materials thingswhich are use to composed ported that could make tremendous enhancement of intellectual useimpact the instructional materials. The use of instructional materials can enhance the learning achievement. Cronbach (2009)states the important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation whichconsists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment.

Experience in situation prepares a person to respond to similar situation in future. Use ofinstructional materials can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest goal that will helpthe learner achieve direct effort. Teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one of arrangingsituation with instructional materials in which the learner will see goals he want to attain. Brownet. al. (2005) summarized the role of teaching aids as follows:

  • It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning.
  • They ensure better retention, thus making learning more permanent.
  • They help to overcome the limited classroom by making the inaccessible accessible.
  • They provide a common experience upon which late learning can be developed. Theystimulate and motivate students to learn.
  • They encourage participation especially if students are allowed to manipulate materialsused.

Osuala (2010) in his own contribution said it does not only help to motivate and develop intereston the part of the student, but also help to bring about an enhance respect for teachers knowledge ofthe subject. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or both to the sense organs duringteaching (Aginna-Obu 2000).

The nature of the learning and the wide range of student’s abilities in the average classroom

necessitate a high degree of teachers and experience in the method of presenting the subject matter. This has been truncated with the unavailability of instructional materials in schools. However, a common goal a teacher carries wherever he is, is to make lesson presentationvitally fresh, stimulating and testing for their students. This will help the teacher to individualize thelearning method as well as the content and also working according to the student’s need. This goalcan be reached most effectively through the use of instructional materials.Thus, this work was designed specifically to unveil the effects of use of instructional materials on students educational performance in Integrated Science.

Keywords: AVAILABILITY AND USAGE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE


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Keywords: AVAILABILITY AND USAGE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE