This study, AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF INSTRUCTION RESOURCES FOR TEACHING JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
This study was carried out to find out which of the instructional resources for teaching and learning Social studies were available in Junior Secondary School, the frequency of their utilization problems militating against constant usage and criteria employed in the selection of instructional resources. To this effect, five randomly selected secondary schools in Ota, Ogun State were used for this study. A total of 150 students and 10 teachers 30 students and 2 teachers from each school were used. The method of data analysis based on frequencies and simple percentages and the following were the results:
The implications of the finding discovered and some recommendation were made to improve the availability and utilization of instructional resources for Social studies teaching in our Junior Secondary Schools.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
One of the major concerns of any educational system is the problem of an effective learning system of teaching social studies in selected Junior Secondary School and basic elements. The concept of Social studies was first used in the United States of America 1905 by a committee under Thomas Jecies to include economic, sociology and civics and later in Europe in 1911 to include history (Wesley, 1950). Then in 1916, the use of the term was accorded official recognition in the report of the committee on Social studies of the commission on the re-organisation of secondary education on the National Education Association of the United States (National Education, 1916).
In that year, the committee on Social studies defined the subject as those whose subject matter relates directly to the organisation and development of human society and to man as a member of social group (National Education, 1916). The group of subjects subsumed under “Social studies” includes Geography, Economics, History, Civic, Government, Psychology, Political Science, Social Work and Sociology.
However, by 1960’s the teaching of Social studies had gathered force among teachers and children of elementary and secondary school both in the United States of America and Europe. Eventually, the subject began to have impact in developing countries.
In Nigeria, the inspiration to get converted to Social studies from the general discontentment with the colonial education as provided by the British was really great. Akinlaye (1998) while assessing the quality of e education given to Nigeria citizens by the says that during the colonial days, there were no clear cut policies about the nation’s social and political institution.
Before and after independence in 1960, there were wide spread feelings that the colonial education was inadequate to meet the needs of the youths and society and this later culminated into various conferences, seminars and workshop for innovations in education in Nigeria.
The interest in Social studies as a school subject was first demonstrated in Nigeria in 1963 when members of the social studies department of the Comprehensive High School, Aiyetoro in the Western Region of Nigeria started working on Social studies textbooks titled “Social studies for Nigerian Schools” Book I and II with the assistance of the Ford Foundation and Comparative Education study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) of the University of Lagos, the books were published in 1968. These books were regarded as an eye opener to what social studies is capable of achieving in Nigerian’s school curriculum.
Also, the National Policy on Education 1977, which stemmed from the 1969 curriculum conference recommended the 6-3-3-4 system of education for the country (six years for primary school, six years for secondary school and four years for post-secondary education). The Junior Secondary School (J.S.S.) is the first three years of the six years (3 – 3) secondary school education prescribed by National Policy on Education.
Among other things, the National Policy on Education designated social studies as one of the “core” subject which is to be studies at the Junior Secondary School (J.S.S.) as well as elective and examinable by West African Examination Council (WAEC) at the Senior Secondary School (S.S.S), (National Policy on Education (FGN, 1981). Generally, it has been observed and investigated by various researchers such as Abdullahi (2003) that students in Junior Secondary Schools because of their age tend to remember vividly what they see and touch than what they learn in abstract. In social studies where students learn about practical life experience, an investigate into the problem need not to be over estimated.
Farrant (2000) emphasized that an invest into problem are not teachers aids but pupils aids. Therefore, the use of instructional resources is very important if the teachers expect the students to learn effectively what he teaches them.
Adigun (2004) has argued that if the problems are solved, learning will be promoted. He wrote, a teacher could use instructional resources in various ways to make his teaching effort more efficient, effective and productive in terms of student learning’s and growth. He can for instance see them to arrest and sustain attention help his present facts and information, teach concepts and principles, guide thinking and induce transfer of learning.
Dele (2005) defined instructional materials as those things, which do not depend primarily upon reading to convey the meanings. That its used to assist the teacher to make lessons interesting. They are used to complement the teacher’s tasks. They promote meaningful communication, ensure better retention, stimulate and motivate the student to learn instructional material help to develop interest in other areas of learning and encourage active participation, especially if students are allowed to manipulate material used. There are various types of instructional material; they can be classified into;
Okobia (2006) said that teacher is expected no his own part to emphasize and create opportunities for students learning activities for the realization of the curriculum objectives including the following:
From the above, one would therefore, believe that the use of instructional material for effective teaching and learning is very important particularly when the concept of child-centered education is taken in consideration various subject like social studies. Therefore, social studies like Geography, History, Economics and so on are open to the use of instructional resources either visual or audio-visual. Teaching social studies at any level requires that the students be exposed to some from of stimulation. Learning cannot take people in a sensory vacuum “as a minimum physical requirement, the instructor must be able to produce stimuli having enough strength and definition to get through to the students, for the student must notice something (Miller, 1957).
The early practice that teachers sometimes rely solely on words to make their meaning clear, tends to make their teaching boring on most times uninteresting to the student that they tend to impact the knowledge on. However, the advent of instructional resources such as maps, models, pictures, filmstrips, specimen projector, globe, and chalkboard.
At the common wealth educational conference in Lagos in February March, 1968, the committee on instructional resources submitted that “the new media for learning social studied should as far as possible be integrated into the entire school curriculum and that it was important to depart from the practice which had tended to prevail so far where by these new materials to the learning process were regarded as mere embellishment of the work of the classroom.
Researchers, which had been carried out, indicated that continuous uses of instructional resources will improve, induced and encourage teaching and learning of social studies.
Adigun (2004) to this end opined that, if instructional materials are used, learning would be promoted, by also saying “a teacher can use instructional materials in various way to make his instructional efforts efficient effective and thus productive in terms of students learning and growth. He can for instance, use them to arrest and sustains attention to help him presented facts and information teach concepts and principles, guide thinking and induce transfer of learning. He can ever, sometimes uses instructional materials to help him and his students assess attainment of learning. It needs to be noted that instructional material is an integral part of teaching and learning in social studies. They help to bring about permanent and meaningful experience, as well as to provide the man for extending the horizon of experience of the learners.
Educational technologists have advanced solution to the problems to instructional process in our educational system. Then the whole world would have gone scientific and educational section should not be left behind. They claimed that with the application of technology to our education, the teaching-learning process would be made effective.
Benedict (2005) says, “Educational technology is the process of applying the scientific process on problem solving to solve problems within an educational system. He then divided educational technology into two branches:
Bearing in mind the importance of instructional materials mentioned above, it would be necessary to say that no teaching should take place in social studies class without instructional resources.
Ogunkoya (2005) says “there is no gain saying the fact that the use of instructional materials help to create good mental image in the students and arouse their interest. Teachers therefore, need to regard these tools as indispensable one”.
The sole responsibility of purchasing these materials rests on the government. But in a country with economic problems such as Nigeria, government has been unable to provide these materials for our schools. Teacher should be able to improvise them for the purpose of making teaching-learning process easier and effective. It is in connection with this in valuable importance that this study has set out to look into the availability of these materials in the teaching of social studies in our schools. This study shall also investigate the utilization of these materials by both the teacher and students.
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