CONSTRAINTS TO DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

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Keywords: CONSTRAINTS TO DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


RESEARCH BODY

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the constraints to development of sports in secondary schools (a case study of Odeda Local Government area) with reference to Sports Personnel, Government Policy on Sports, Sports Funding, Sports Facilities and Equipment and Sports Programmes. The cross-sectional survey design was used in the study. In pursuance of the specific objectives, five research questions were formulated with five hypotheses to give direction to the study. The sample for the study consisted of 150respondents made up of all the principals, physical education teachers and the game prefects in all the state government owned secondary schools in Odeda Local Government, Ogun state. The result of data analyses, using\ percentages, showed that the major constraints to development of sports in secondary school in Odeda Local Government are Lack of opportunities for conferences, workshops and seminars, lack of regular in-service training for sports personnel ,Lack of development and maintenance of school sports facilities by the government, and lack of adequate motivation and incentives in th form of scholarship, training grants, awards, etc to outstanding athletes /officials, inadequate funding of school sports programme, and lack of financial support from philanthropic individuals, organizations and agencies, lack of facilities and equipment, inadequate facilities and equipment, and poor maintenance of available facilities and equipment, Inadequate facilities, equipment and supplies for school sports programme, poor organization and implementation of school sports programme and lack of funding to implement outlined school sports programme. The finding further revealed that there is no significant difference in the constraints to development of sports according to principals, game masters/mistresses and game prefects. It was therefore recommended that there should be provision of qualified personnel, effective sports development policy, standard facilities, adequate funding, and effective school sports programme for effective development of sports.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Research Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Limitation of the Study

1.9       Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.1       INTRODUCTION

2.2       Sports and Sports Development

2.3       Constraint and Constraints to Sports Development

2.4       Theoretical Framework

2.5       Theory of Constraints (TOC)

2.6       Empirical Studies on Constraints to Sports Development

2.7       Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                                          

Introduction

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population and Sampling

3.3       Sample and Sampling Procedures

3.4       Research Instrument

3.5       Validity of the Instrument

3.6       Reliability of Research Instrument

3.7       Procedure for Data Collection

3.8       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       DATA PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS                              

4.1       Introduction

4.2       Demographic Data of Respondents

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                         

Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations

REFERENCES                                                                                                       

Appendix: Questionnaire        

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Sports are very popular all over the world because of the diverse purposes they serve.Bucher and Krotee (2002) opined that sports contribute to character building, discipline, economy, ideology, patriotism, education, mental development, human communication, physical fitness, and health.

Sports competitions, n seminars, conferences and meetings of various types provide the opportunity for individuals from different countries to exchange ideas and knowledge which in turn would be of immense benefit in educating the citizens of their countries.

Morakinyo (2002) observed that sports as a social phenomenon has grown from its humble beginning of being an entertainment and recreation pastime to become a visible and prominent business sphenomenon that could no longer be ignored in the social, political and economic environment of any nation. Many great nations and societies of the world have realized that participation in sports is the key to a healthy development of their citizens, and have used it to develop their young ones, attaining a success that science, religions and politics have failed to nachieve. Sporting activities have as well permeated the Nigerian society just as many other societies worldwide and also all aspects of societal life such as politics and religion.

Awosika(2003) described sports as a symbol that has become a unifying factor in Nigeria and views it as an essential ingredient for nation building, which cuts across all barriers ethnic, religiousor social, and has served as a medium for the development of youths.

Onifade (2003) viewed sports as an institutionalized competitive activity that involves vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skill by individuals. Sports in the context of this study are defined as games and plays of low and high organization within the secondary school setting. Such games and plays may or may not be competitive but may encourage greater students’ participation.

Collins (2005) defined sports development as a process whereby effective opportunities, processes, systems and structures that are set up to enable and encourage people in all or particular groups and areas to take part in sport for recreation or to improve their performance to whatever level they desire.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (2009), segmented sports development into five distinct components: international sports, indigenous sports, stadium management, sports federations and institutional sports.

International Sports arises because sports regularly cross international boundaries.
Defining International sports as having an impact on more than one nation, Masteral exis,
Barr and Hums (2005) noted that it is extremely difficult to name sports that are unaffected
by international influences.

Indigenous sports refer to traditional sports and games that have been practiced in Nigeria all over the years, even before colonialism and western education. The traditional sports and games then were basically for leisure and recreational activities, some of which reflect the cultural heritage and religious background of the people in Nigeria in general.

Akinemi (2008) give some people examples of indigenous sports in Nigeria include Ayo (Seed game),Langa (Hopping game), Kokawa (Traditional wrestling), Aarin (African billiards game), and Dambe (Traditional boxing). Indigenous sports encourage indigenous people to be more active and to play sport at all levels. It increase opportunities for indigenous people
to learn the skills needed to organise, deliver, and manage community based sport, and to
ensure indigenous people talented

Stadiums facilities are designed to accommodate large group of people who want to be entertained at a sport or an entertainment event. Stadium management as a component of sports development involves financing new stadiums or renovations of old ones, retaining the revenue generated by the stadium and preparing fully integrated security programmes.

Sports Federations are the organizations governing a specific sport within each
country. Examples of sports federation in Nigeria include the Nigerian Football Federation
(NFF), Athletic Federation of Nigeria (AFN), and Traditional Sports Federation of Nigeria
(TSFN) among others. These organizations are responsible for approving and sanctioning
competitions open to all athletes in the country. They set the national policies and eligibility
standards for participation in their respective sports.

Sports federations are also responsible for the training, development, and selection of teams in their respective sports for various competitions in various institutions. Institutional sports here refer to school sports (Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Institutions). Secondary school sport is the focus of this study, considering the role secondary school sports play in the early identification of sports talents and sports development.

Sports development in Nigeria has witnessed a lot of metamorphosis from the
colonial, pre-independence to independence eras. Prior colonial incursion, dancing, acrobatic
displays and wrestling featured prominently as part of ceremonies in Nigerian societies
(Ikulayo, 2004).

A constraint according to Hornby (2001) is a thing that limits or restricts. Quirk
(2003) perceived constraint as something that limits ones freedom of doing what he wants to do. In the context of this study, constraints to sports development refer to those things such as
lack of qualified sports personnel and adequate and suitable facilities and equipment among
others that limit the development of sports in secondary schools in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State.

Abeku(2000)An important instrument for the attainment of the above objective would have been emphasizing the implementation of the regular school sport system and its physical education programme at all levels of schooling (primary, secondary and tertiary). School sports constitute an important and inseparable stage in the pursuit of long term development objectives of sports, the athlete, the national and sports organizations.(Vencateswarlu, 2000).

Musa (2009) noted that secondary school age bracket constitute the critical period for
acquisition and mastery of sports skills. This is a unique and fascinating period in human
development because students are usually in their formative period of development.

Secondary sports is a setting to encourage adolescents to begin and maintain a physically active life style and also to acquire and develop high standard skills for major games and sports Secondary school sports connote competitions particularly in football, athletics and a few popular sports.

According toMorakinyo and Aluko (2010), the administration of any organization is a function tharequires personal/professional preparation on the part of the personnel. Sport is a technical area that requires adequate preparation for those that will manage it at any level.

Bucher, Koening and Barnhard (2000), stated that no physical education and sport can
effectively be carried out without adequate facilities and equipment. It is obvious that ideal
facilities and equipment.

Nji (2010). The above statement rationalizes their inclusion in the present study. This
also goes for the game prefects who as student athletes lack the opportunity for proper
participation in sports due to certain constraints to development of sports.
Various researchers and authors in Physical Education, such as Morankinyo and
Aluko (2010), had outlined some factor such as quality of sports personnel, government policy, funding of sport, sport facilities and equipment and sport programs to be implicated in poor secondary schools for development ofsports. This study therefore attempts to concretely examine in the light of the foregoing the constraints that impede development of sports in secondary schools in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State.

Keywords: CONSTRAINTS TO DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS


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Keywords: CONSTRAINTS TO DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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