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Keywords:DIETARY SUPPLEMENT USE AS A PREDICTOR OF WELLBEING
Background to the study
Nutrition is an aspect of science that deals with the relationship of food and its function in the body. Nutrition is the science that deals with all the various factors of which food is composed and the way in which proper nourishment is brought about. The average nutritional requirement of groups of people are fixed and depend on such measurable characteristics such as age, sex, height, weight, degree of activity and rate of growth. Good nutrition requires satisfactory diet which is capable of supporting the individual in a state of good health by providing the right amount of fuel to execute normal physical activity. If the total amount of nutrients provided in the diet is insufficient, a state of under nutrition is developed. The council on food and nutrition of the American Medical Association defines nutrition as the science of food , the nutrients and the substances therein, their action , interaction and balance in relation to health and disease. Nutrition science is the area of knowledge regarding the role of food in maintenance of good health (www.eguruguide.com/nutition.html)
In nutrition , diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism, with the word diet, it is often implied the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight management reasons. Proper nutrition requires the proper ingestion and equally important is the absorption of vitamins, minerals and food energy in form of carbohydrates, protein and fats. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in health and mortality and can also define cultures and play a role in religion (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/diet/nutrition.html). As with all complementary and alternative therapies, the use of dietary supplements has increased over the past 10 years. (Messerer,2001).
Dietary supplements (also known as nutritional or food supplements) can contain dietary ingredient intended to supplement the diet, Examples include vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids and other botanicals, they are not represented for use as a convectional food or as a sole item of a meal. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education (DSHEA) Act of 1994 defines dietary supplement as a product which supplements the food you eat, contains one or more dietary ingredient including minerals , herbs, vitamins, and other botanicals, comes in capsules , liquid or pills.
Different kinds of dietary supplements contain micro nutrients meant to assist a healthy and fit body to function smoothly. Herbal or botanical supplements have radical purpose , they usually support a particular region of the body’s physical condition like bones, liver or skin. Health advantages of vitamins and micro nutrients which serve a particular purpose as well as benefit the body in a very unique way. For instance vitamin A enhances the growth of bones and a clear vision, while vitamin E supports the body’s immune system and assist in repairing the DNA. Mineral and vitamin deficiency impair the body’s aptitude for helping and protecting itself. Beneficiaries of these dietary supplements are women of child bearing age who need additional calcium and iron, lactating and pregnant women , teenagers and children with irregular and unbalanced eating habits , vegetarians, elderly people ,people having eating disorders and medical conditions including deficiency diseases, lactose intolerance and absorption problem, individuals who often consume fast foods.(www.articlebase.com/healtharticles/dietarysupplements.com).
Babara (2010) affirms that the issue of dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, fish oils and botanicals has considerably increased worldwide during the last decade but the health effects of these supplements are not always clear. Furthermore, information on the determinants of dietary supplements use is crucial in order to generate new data relevant for consumer education, medical training and health practice and policy.
Vitamins are highly complex substances that are essential for our good health, normal growth and reproduction. They may be chemically unrelated but all vitamins are organic, found only in things that are alive. Every cell in our body require vitamins every day, although plant can manufacture all the vitamins they need, the human body cannot. Abidu (2001) affirms that vitamins and minerals are essential for the nourishment of our body. We must receive a constant supply of vitamins always. Vitamins are categorised as either fat-soluble (vitamin A,D,E and K) and water soluble (vitamin B and C). The body can only store fat soluble vitamins, but the water soluble vitamins cannot be stored. Vitamins perform a myriads of function in the body and are vital to life itself sustaining activities as enzyme production. The amount of supplemental vitamin by any individual depends upon a number of factors , including food choices , digestive ability, environmental exposure, general health and genetic background.
Minerals in the body work to trigger enzymes, which are the catalyst needed to convert dietary nutrients to readily usable forms, without minerals, other nutrient like vitamins, protein, fats and carbohydrates would be wasted. Minerals, though needed in very small amounts are absolutely essential for life processes. The amount of any given mineral, in any form that you will absorb is influenced by many factors. What you eat, living and environment and genetic considerations can all impact your nutrient absorption potential. It is a fact, however that all of the minerals ingested through standard food supplies , only a small percentage are absorbed by the body, the vast majority are not absorbed and thus lost. Therefore mineral supplementation may be important even for those who feel that they maintain healthy balanced diet. Minerals are organic materials necessary for normal functioning of organs and hormones needed by the body. It helps prevent diseases and promotes recovery from illness, fatigue and exhaustion (Ngwu, 2003).
Statement of Problem
The rate of disclosure to doctors about the use of dietary supplements is widely spread. It is been a major concern to physicians how a lot of people use dietary supplement without minding the risk it poses to them. The issue of self medication is a major problem with dietary supplements users. Given the high utilisation of medication and age related changes in drug absorption, clearance and distribution, drug interactions probably represent the greatest safety risk with the use of dietary supplement. In addition to actual food products targeted by physically active individuals, numerous people have attested to the fact that taking dietary supplement improves performance. The major focus will be on the efficacy of such dietary supplements to improve well being. When the dust settles on the practice of supplementing one’s diet for health or performance reasons, there are typically three areas that remain a sore spot with overall health industry acceptance. These are: Lack of industry testing/quality control- no guarantee of label claim being in the product , fear of excessive nutrient intake, bogus claims/ridiculous marketing: Also, while most companies mention in the fine print that you need to include proper diet and exercise, we make sure that all of these elements are available at the same place and at the same time. This study is meant to investigate the effect of dietary supplements on the well being of staff of Tai Solarin University of Education.
In carrying out this study, answers will be sought to the following research questions.
- Will dietary supplement be a predictor of the well being of as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode?
- Will ignorance be a predictor of the use of dietary supplement as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode?
- Will finance be a predictor of the use of dietary supplement as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode?
- Will belief be a predictor of the use of dietary supplement as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode?
- Will level of consumer education be a predictor of the use of dietary supplement as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode?
- Dietary supplement is not a predictor of the well being as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode.
- Ignorance is not a predictor of use of dietary supplement as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode.
- Finance is not a predictor of use of dietary supplement as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode.
- Belief is not a predictor of use of dietary supplement as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode.
- Level of consumer education is not a predictor of use of dietary supplement as perceived by staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode.
Delimitation of the Study
This study will delimitated to the following:
1. Staff of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu Ode, Ogun State
- Self structured questionnaire as instrument for data collection
- Descriptive survey research design will be adopted in the research work
- Pearson product data analysis will be used to analyse the data collected
- Collection of filled questionnaire will be collected by researcher and two research assistants
Limitation of the Study
The workload on staff of a University is always high, especially on the academic and administrative staff including the technical staff. It will be a little challenging to get completed questionnaires forms immediately from them as they may be too engaged or out of office to fill the questionnaire. The researcher is supposed to work with 300 hundred questionnaires but he will administer 350 questionnaires to make room for loss in transit and unreturned questionnaires.
Significance of the Study
It has been observed that people take dietary supplements in other to replace poor diet. This study is meant to enlighten and make sure that people see the importance of taking regular balance diet that will supply optimal nutrient to the body instead of over dependence of drugs.
Definition of Terms
Nutrition: Nutrition is the combination of processes by which living organism receives and utilizes the materials of food necessary for the maintenance of its functions and for the growth and renewal of its components.
Food: food is the substance taken into the body that will help meet the body’s need for energy, maintenance of health, growth and reproduction
Dietary Supplements: It contains a dietary ingredient intended to supplement the diet, examples include vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids and botanicals.
Minerals: Minerals are organic materials necessary for normal functioning of organs and hormones needed by the body. It helps prevent diseases and promoted recovery from illness, fatigue and exhaustion
Amino Acids: A class of organic compound known as building blocks of protein molecule.
Nutrient: A substance needed by a living thing to maintain life, health and reproduction.
Keywords: DIETARY SUPPLEMENT USE AS A PREDICTOR OF WELLBEING
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