This study,DRUG AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG YOUTH contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
World Health Organization view on substances and drug abuse “Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs”. Psychoactive substances use can lead to dependence syndrome – a cluster of behavioural cognitive and psychological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance and sometimes a physical withdrawal state.
Policies which influence the levels and patterns of substances use and related harm can significantly reduce the public health problems attributable to substance use and interventions at the health care system level can work towards the restoration of health in affected individuals.
The exact cause of substance abuse and drug abuse is not clear, with theories including a generic disposition, learned from others or a habit which if addiction develops, manifests as a chronic debilitating disease.
Drugs most often associated with this term include; alcohol, substituted amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazephines, (particularly alprazolam, lorazepam, diazepam and clanazepam), cocaine, mothequalone, cannabis and opioids.
In many cases, criminals or anti-social behaviour occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well. In addition to possible physical, social and psychological harm, use of some rugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction substance abuse is widespread with an estimated 120 million users of hard drugs such as cocaine, heroine and other synthetic drugs. In 2013, drug use disorder resulted in 127,000 deaths up from 53,000 in 1990. The highest number of deaths are from opioid use disorder at 51,000. Cocaine use disorder resulted in 3,800 deaths. Alcohol use disorder resulted in an additional 139,000 deaths.
Many people do not understand why or how other people become addicted to drugs. It is often mistakenly assumed drug and substance abusers are decadent or they lack will power and that they could stop using drugs simply by choosing to change their behaviour. In reality, drug addition is a complex disease, and quitting it takes more than good intentions and a strong will. In fact, because drugs change the brain in ways that foster compulsive drug abuse, quitting is difficult, even for those who are ready to do so. Through scientific advances, we know more about how drugs work in the brain than ever, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and lead productive lives
People abuse substances such as alcohol, tobacco and other drugs for varied and complicated reasons, but it is clear that our society pays a significant cost. The toll for this abuse can be seen in our hospitals and emergency departments both through direct damage to health by substance abuse and its link to physical trauma. Jails and prisons tally daily the strong connections between crime and drugs dependence and abuse.
Although use of some drugs such as cocaine has declined in recent years, use of other drugs such as heroin and “club drugs” has increase. Example of club drugs are marijuana or opinum derivative, ecstasy or ketamine. Finding effective treatment for and prevention of substance abuse and substance dependency, now both included under the diagnosis of substance use disorder, has been difficult. Through research, we now have a better understanding of this behaviour. Studies have made it clear that drug education and prevention aimed at children and adolescents as well as youth offers the best chance to curb drug abuse nationally.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
One of the aims of every human society is to have a healthy population, healthy in the sense that to have people who are mentally and physically well. This is more manifest and desirable today especially in the face of the competitive world we are today.
In Nigeria in general, Plateau State and Jos North Local Government in particular, drug abuse is the primary reason why many youths are incarcerated, as well as a source of crime and health problem our society today. For example lately, Jos went through series of unrests situations and crises. Most of the situations had been triggered by people who abuse drugs and substances.
It has become unprecedented problem in Nigeria that the number of youth incarcerated in various prisons including the Jos North prison has increase dramatically over the last few years. As a matter of fact, majority of these youths have been arrested for drug offences, or have a drug abuse problem. some of the factors contributing to this arrest are the public awareness of the danger in a drug and substance abuse and the “War on Drug” declared by the Federal Government using various agencies like the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC) etc.
However, since the year the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) was set up in 1999, frantic efforts are being made to collect relevant information. The impact of these agencies interms of intervention strategies and control is tremendous.
The world today is witnessing an upsurge of issues that are of global dimension, for example drug and substance abuse. As a matter of fact, the social effects of drugs and substance abuse which include road accident, loss of jobs, poor academic and job performances, instability family set-up etc. are sources of concern to the government because it has reach an alarming stage.
Research has shown that the key risk periods for drug and substance are during major transitions in children’s lives. The first big transition for children is when they leave the security of the family and enter school. Later, when they advance from elementary to middle school, they often experience new academic and social situations, such as learning to get along with a wider group of peers. It is at this stage early adolescence that children are likely to encounter drugs for the first time. when they enter high school, adolescents face additional social, emotional and educational challenges. At the same time, they may be exposed to greater availability of drugs, drug users and social activities involving drugs. These challenges can increase the risk that that they will abuse alcohol, tobacco and other substances.
When young adults leave home for college or work and are on their own for the first time, their risk for drug and alcohol abuse is very high. Consequently, young adult interventions are needed as well.
According to Muobogare (2008) “Coaches and athletes should be educated on the deceptive and negative effects of drug and alcohol. He emphasized that, this is necessary since drugs and substance raises the pain threshold. Criminals are noted to take drug and alcohol in excess that even when they receive gunshot may still put on a very high performance and escape with the injury without being caught.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are raised in order to guide the study.
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The general objective is to know and evaluate the effects of drugs and substance abuse among youths aged 18-35 years in Jos North LGA, Plateau State. The specific objectives of the research are:
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There is an increasing case of drug and substance abuse in the human societies. The main justification for this study is to provide a valuable insight in to the drug and substance abuse in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State. However, the result of the study is expected to serve as a useful guide to other readers and researchers. The research is also expected to add to previous literature and contribute to the solution of the ever increasing problems of drug and substance abuse. This study should also serve as an aid to the government to make useful policies which will help to control and regulate the use of drugs which are considered dangerous and addictive.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study intends to know the extent of drug and substance abuse and how it contributes to disturbance of public peace as well as personal and social dysfunctioning among youths aged 18-35 years. The study will focus on specific areas such as Gangare, Rikkos, Tundun Wada. These places have a significant number of people who are engaged in drugs and substance abuse.
The study also tends to cover a period between 2010-2014. The study will be limited to the relationship between drug and substance abuse and youth in Jos North and how it influences their behaviour in the area.
1.7 OPERATIONALIZATION OF KEY CONCEPTS
The words to be used in this study will be defined as;
1.7.1 Substance and Drug Abuse
This is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance and drug in large amount or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others and is a form of substance related disorder. Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, with theories including a genetic disposition; learned from others or a habit which if addicted develops, manifests as a chronic debilitating disease.
Public health practitioners have attempted to look at substance use from a broader perspective than the individual, emphasizing the role of society, culture and availability. Some health professionals choose to avoid the terms alcohol or drug “abuse” in favour of language, they consider more objective such as “substance and alcohol type problems” or “harmful/problematic use” of drugs.
The health officers council of British Columbia in their 2005 policy discussion paper “A Public Health Approach To Drug Control in Canada” has adopted a public health model of psychoactive substance use that challenges the simplistic black and white construction of the binary (or complimentary) antonyms “use” or “abuse”. This model explicitly recognizes a spectrum of use ranging from beneficial use to chronic dependence.
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