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THE EFFECT OF GRADED DOSES OF SHEA BUTTER ON THE FORMALIN-INDUCED PAW CHRONIC INFLAMMATION IN ALBINO RATS

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

: THE EFFECT OF GRADED DOSES OF SHEA BUTTER ON THE FORMALIN-INDUCED PAW CHRONIC INFLAMMATION IN ALBINO RATS
: Chapter 1 – 5
: #3, 000
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This study,THE EFFECT OF GRADED DOSES OF SHEA BUTTER ON THE FORMALIN-INDUCED PAW CHRONIC INFLAMMATION IN ALBINO RATS contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords:THE EFFECT OF GRADED DOSES OF SHEA BUTTER ON THE FORMALIN-INDUCED PAW CHRONIC INFLAMMATION IN ALBINO RATS


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RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter One

1.0  INTRODUCTION

Chapter two

2.0  INFLAMMATION

2.1  CARDINAL SIGNS OF INFLAMMATION

2.2 TYPES OF INFLAMMATION

2.2.1 Acute inflammation

2.3 Vascular Component Of Inflammation

2.3.1 Vasodilation and increased permeability

2.3.2 Plasma cascade systems

2.3.3 Cellular component

2.4.0 Inflammatory Disorders

2.4.1 Atherosclerosis

2.4.2 Allergies

2.4.3 Myopathies

2.4.4 Leukocyte defects

2.4.5 Cancer

2.4.6 HIV and AIDS

2.5   MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH REPORTED ANTI INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES

  • Achilleamillefolium(Asteraceae)
  • Aconitum heterophyllum (Valeraneaceae)
  • Adhatodavasica (Acanthaceae)
  • Bacopamonnieri( Scrophulariaceae)
  • Cassia fistula (Caesalpiniaceae)
  • Daphne pontica (Thymelaeaceae)
  • Emblicaofficinalis (Euphorbiaceae)
  • Garciniamangostana (Guttiferae)
  • Lantana camara (Verbenaceae)
  • Lycopodiumclavatum (Lycopodiaceae)

2.6  SHEA BUTTER

2.6.1 Chemical Composition of Shea Butter

2.7 REPORTED BENEFITS OF SHEA BUTTER

2.7.1 Sun-screening function: Sun-screens absorb or reflect some of the sun’s ultraviolet

2.7.2 As an emollient and skin moisturizer

2.7.3 Anti-aging properties:

2.7.4 Allergy:

2.7.5 Effect on protein metabolism:

2.8 NON STEROIDAL ANTI INFLAMMATORY DRUGS

2.8.1 Adverse effects

2.9 DICLOFENAC

2.9.1 Mechanism of action

2.9.2 Side effect

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 MATERIALS

3.2 EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

3.3 FORMALIN INDUCED INFLAMMATION

3.4 DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

  1. RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effect of graded doses of Shea butter on the formalin-induced paw chronic inflammation in Albino rats. Albino rats of average weight 155g were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals each. Group 1 receivedPropyleneglycol , Group II-IV received 5mg/ml, 10mg/ml and 20mg/ml Shear butter respectively, Group V received 50mg/kg Diclofenac. All groups received intervention once a day for seven days during which the hind paw thickness were measured daily using a vernier caliper.

After two formalin treatments, a marked increase in the paw thickness was detected in the group of animal that received formalin only as compared with the positive control group.

However, formalin-induced chronic inflammatory changes were significantly (P< 0.05) reduced by treatment with diclofenac and all three different dosages of Shear butter, 5mg/ml, 10mg/ml and 20mg/ml, with percentage inhibition of 65.91%, 78.83% and 83.61% respectively. Shea butter 20mg/ml, produces a significant (P< 0.05) anti-inflammatory effect more than 50mg/kg Diclofenac, with percentage inhibition of 83.61% and 52.73% respectively. The maximum Shea butter therefore has favorable effects on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and it may represent an alternative approach for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

Keywords:Shea butter, Inflammation, Diclofenac, Formalin

Chapter One

1.0  INTRODUCTION                        

Inflammation is a normal part of complex biological protective response to tissue injury caused by physical trauma, noxious chemicals or microbiological agents. Inflammation can be broadly classified into major categories, that is, acute inflammation, which is associated with increased vascular permeability, capillary infiltration and emigration of leukocyte. Chronic inflammation is associated with infiltration of mononuclear immune cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, fibroblast activation, proliferation (angiogenesis) and fibrosis. It is characterized by redness, heat, pain, swelling and sometimes, loss of function.

Inflammation is currently treated and managed using several groups of drugs known as the Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). However, most of these drugs had been associated with several side effects, including gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding, Renal damage, Hypertension, Hyperglycemia. Besides the above side-effects, the greatest disadvantage in presently available potent anti-inflammatory drugs lies in their toxicity and reappearance of symptoms after discontinuation. Therefore, the screening and development of drugs for their anti-inflammatory activity is the need of hour and there are many efforts for finding anti-inflammatory drugs from indigenous medicinal plants.

Natural products are rich source for discovery of lead compounds because of their phytochemical composition. A natural product from medicinal plants had been shown to plays a major role in the management of several diseases associated with inflammation.

Medicinal plants have been source of wide variety of biologically active compounds for many centuries and used extensively as crude material or as pure compounds for treating various disease conditions. The use of herbal medicines is becoming popular due to toxicity and side-effects of conventional drugs.  Agent isolated from certain plants had been shown to play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. Nevertheless, there are over 1.5 million practitioners of traditional medicinal system using medicinal plants in preventive, promotional and curative applications, especially diseases attributed to acute and chronic inflammation (Barnes et al, 2002).

Unlike conventional drugs that that often have specific that target and mechanism of action, some medicainal plants had been shown to have diverse site of action and they contain myriad molecules that act synergistically on targeted elements of the complex cellular pathway (Durmowicz et al, 2009) Hitherto, numerous compounds had been reported to have therapeutic activities although most of these reports are of academic interest and very few find entry in clinical trials.

Due to its essential and potent composition, Shea butter is renowned for its use as a component of cosmetic formulations and as a substitute for Cocoa butter in chocolate industries (Ogbonnaya et al., 2008), although the taste is noticeably different (Fold et al., 2000). Shea butter is used by local healers as a treatment for rheumatism, inflammation of the nostrils, nasal congestion, leprosy, cough, and minor bone dislocation (Goreja et al., 2004). It is also used as raw material for the production margarine, soap, detergent and candle [26]. Low quality butter and by-products of processed nuts are smeared on earthen walls of houses as a waterproof to protect walls during the rainy season (Olaniyan et al., 2007). Shea butter has also been used for soothing and accelerating healing after circumcision, and for preventing stretch marks in African pregnant women and as an insect repellent, providing protection against Simulium infection (Goreja et al., 2004).

Nevertheless, there are no reports of allergic reaction owing to consumption of Shea butter or its produce (Kanwaljit et al., 2010). The United States Agency for International Development, Gassel Consulting, and many other companies have suggested a classification system for Shea butter separating it into five grades: A (raw or unrefined, extracted using water), B (refined), C (highly refined and extracted with solvents such as hexane), D (lowest uncontaminated grade), E (with contaminants) (United States Agency For International Development, 2006).

However, there had been limited scientific reports on the anti inflammatory effects of Shea butter as most scientific studies had focused on the cosmetic and dermatological, hence, this study is aimed at investigating the anti-inflammatory effect of Shea butter in Albino rats.

Keywords: THE EFFECT OF GRADED DOSES OF SHEA BUTTER ON THE FORMALIN-INDUCED PAW CHRONIC INFLAMMATION IN ALBINO RATS


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