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THE EFFECT OF INFLATION AND INTEREST RATE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA
The gross Domestic product Growth is a long term rise in the capacity to supply increasingly diverse economic goods o its population. This growing capacity is said to base on advancing technology.
It is only through an effective economic system that human and material resources of the nation could be mobilized between the government and the governed. The concept of economy development of Nigeria with its objectives is aimed at standard and mobilization or mobilizing the functions and financial resource is to encourage initiative and leadership potential.
There is still need for government to creative conducive social and political environment to attract foreign investors in various aspects of the Nigeria economy. To this end of the democratization process will be in progress to encourage the earnest pursue.
The research major objective is to identify how inflation and interest rate has affected economic growth in Nigeria and suggesting recommending ways of improving Nigeria economy. This problems on GDP was critically examine.
In handling the research, secondary and primary data where source with the use of questionnaire and oral interview, while secondary data sources are test books.
The analysis of data was based on percentages. It is on the strength of the finding that recommendation and conclusion was made.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
SCOPE & LIMITATION
DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.1 INTEREST RATE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
FACTORS INFLUENCE INTEREST RATE
MANAGEMENT PRIOR 2003/ MONETARY DEVELOPMENT
CASE FOR INTEREST CEILING
CASE AGAINST INTEREST CEILING
INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT
INFLATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
EFFECT OF INFLATION ON SAVINGS/ GROWTH
INFLATION AND GROWTH IN DEVELOPING NATION
2.2.1 EMPIRICAL STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP ON INFLATION
AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN LATIN AMERICA OTHER COUNTRIES
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE BASED ON SOME AFRICAN COUNTRIES
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
AREA OF STUDY
LOCATION OF DATA
INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION
METHOD OF DATA PRESENTATION
TECHNIQUES OF DATA ANALYSIS
PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS OF RESULT AND INTERPRETATION.
4.1 PRESENTATION OF DATA
ANALYSIS OF RESULT
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Every country in the world aim at achieving economic growth and development. This is only possible if a country has adequate sources. In developing countries especially those in sub-saharan Africa. The resources to finance the optimal level of economic growth and development are in short supply.
Inflation, economic growth and interest rate concepts that are central and interrelated in Macro economic. A proper understanding of these concepts is therefore very necessary in order to get a good grasp of how inflation and interest rate has effected growth in Nigeria over the past eleven years. Is from this view that gives what have been expressed by various people to the theoretical and empirical relationship that has been estimated between them.
Inflation is said o occur when the genral level of prices rises rapidly and persistently over a givebn period of time. This is undesirable to the public and policy makers. From this of view of the public inflation causes uncertainty about future prices. This effect decisions on expenditure, savings, investment and misallocation of resources. It also allows substantial in distributions of income and wealth from savers to borrowers. To policy makers, inflation hampers economic growth and development as it discourages investment and savings. These factors explain why policy makers put in lots of efforts to reduce inflation and why several authors focus attention on this issue. Inflation is now one of the intractable problems facing the Nigeria economy.
Having registered low rates of inflation in years immediately after independence. The country experience double digit in 1960. this was as a result of the civil war. The next period of high inflation was (1974- 1979), when the wage freeze was discontinued as recommended by Udoji salary review commission.
Reduction of the high inflationary pressure is considered one of the most critical Macro- economic objectives in Nigeria. A number of approached to the explanation of the phenomenon of inflation have been suggested and tested in the economic literature. Thus such concept of inflation has been suggested in the economic literature. Thus such concept of inflation has been popularized including Demand Pull inflation which occurs when aggregated demand rises faster than aggregated supply another form of inflation is cost push which occurs when price increase, its originated from supply side of economy either through profit push or wages push resulting from trade union action. For structural inflation, it seeks to explain the long term tendency of prices especially in the industrialized western countries.
There do also exist monetarists. It explains and observes inflation rate in different countries to respective growth rate of money supply. Inflation can be transmitted from one country to another, this is usually referred to as imported inflation and occurs when a country engages in international trade. Inflation has various effect on the economy as a whole of which economic growth and interest rate are of great important. These three variables are interrelated. There are many indicators of economic growth, for the purpose of this research study.
Finally, the relationship between inflation, interest and economic growth will be fully examined. It should be noted that interest rate are to help in mobilization of financial resources and to the promoting or promotion of economic growth and development. Interest rates effect the level of consumption on the hand, it is one of the major tools of monetary policy. It was regulated and controlled by the central bank of Nigeria.
The direct and magnitude of changes in market interest rate are of primary importance to economic agents and policy makers. Economic growth is an increase in the average rate of output produced per person, usually measured on per annum basis. Interest rates are the rental payment for the use of credit by borrowers ad return payment with liquidity by lenders.
The effect of inflation and interest rate on economy growth in Nigeria is quite a serious problem. The country experiences on inflation is no longer the problem but the fact that inflation problem seems to have reached the crisis dimension. Changes in interest rate determines the rate of inflation. The nominal interest rate is a function of the real interest rate and inflationary expectation.
Since independence, we have been suffering from inflation and interest rate till central bank interned their new system abolished all control on interest rate and allow banks to fix their own interest rate.
The broad objectives of the study are mainly.
For the purpose of evaluating or in order to efficiently and objectively analyze to achieve the above objective, the hypothesis is formulated thus:
1a. Ho: Inflation rate has no significant impact on the GDP of economic growth in Nigeria
2a Ho: Interest rate has no significant impact on the GDP of the economic growth in Nigeria.
The nature of Nigeria economy has made it to be unbearable for the people existing in the country over the years, Nigeria economy is having unbalance of payment that could be easily financed for domestic product and hence external borrowing becomes inevitable. The adverse effect of external debt and economic growth related problems on the Nigeria economy are becoming unbearable.
So the study will be of importance to educate Nigerian’s by revealing to them that one of the major reason why Nigeria economy is growing very slow could be trace back to inflation and interest rate problem. It should be noted that interest are to help in mobilization of financial resources in the promotion of the economic growth and development rather than going outside the country seeking for fund to borrow.
Further more, this studying will be of good help to the Nigeria government, especially the present government to know that inadequate supply of locally produced and imported commodities, the high price of imported commodities, the high price of imported goods arising from increases in foreign prices being instability of foreign exchange, thereby effecting our economy and its growth. In order to curtail the total outstanding inflectional and interest rate problem the next step should be fellow because it is obvious that Nigeria economy growing alarming rate yearly.
It must be added, that this study is of relevant not only to Nigeria but it almost all the countries confronted with economic problem especially as a result of various common features.
SCOPE- the study is designed to cover the role of inflation and interest rate in Nigeria economy. The main factor such as investment and savings, which have influenced their management as the various changes which have been taken places in their structure since the commencement of financial sector reforms. It also provide some insight into the problems of inflation in Nigeria, discuss the major factors underlay it and some measures taken to minimize the impact of inflationary pressures.
In the course of carrying out this study some problems were encountered, which regards from noon availability of relevant material and recent data to the penalty of available ones. The display of uncoporative attitude by those who are supposed to be the custodian of data also affected this study in many ways. Time abd fund also are including in factor factors to the collection of adequate data. Enough time is needed in order to travel to other financial institutions in order to travel to other fiancial institutions in order to get adequate information needed.
This also posses a problem, due to transportation cost and the present economic situation in the country.
DELIMTATION – Due to above limitation the researcher therefore had to restrict collection of data within Enugu only especially as a result of financial constraints.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Stephur N.M, Eghosa, O. (1995) A textbook of economics for West African Student.
Ibadan; University press Ltd Ibadan pp, 210-219.
CBN Briefs (1996), Management of Nigeria public and inflation research department series no 96/09, pp 6-9
Udeh, S.O (1999), Collage Economics; An Omini Text Enugu ADK Educational industries ltd, pp 227-246
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