This study, EFFICACY OF FLIP CHART IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
This study examined the efficacy of flip chart as an instructional material to enhance better classroom performance of integrated science teaching and also the academic performance of students in Junior Secondary Schools in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State. A total of four (4) schools and one hundred and twenty (120) people took part in the study. The instrument used for data collection was a well structured questionnaire. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using simple percentage and mean. The result of the study shows that flip chart play important roles on students’ academic performance and it enhance better classroom performance of teachers. Based on the above findings, the researcher recommended that government and school administration should provide adequate flip chart for schools lacking them and teachers should know the learners better, select and use appropriate flip chart so as to improve the quality of their work.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Definition of Term
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 What does Science Means?
2.2 Meaning and Types of Instructional Materials
2.3 Types of Instructional Materials
2.4 Concept of Flip Chart
2.5 How to use Flip Chart Effectively
2.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Flip Chart
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
3.6 Data Collection
4.0 Data Analysis
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
One of the major problems of learning within the conventional setting is the emphasis on verbalism as the sole mode of communication between the teacher and the learners Bolick (2002). In the word of Maduabum (2000), words simply make learning abstract and inactive as it address only one of the many senses of human understanding and communication in fact in some cases such as the hearing impaired (i.e. people whose ear do not function normally)verbalism has no place in their programmes Ema,(2001).
Hence, the need to adopt a better strategy which will encompass the use of audio visual materials, to ensure that students have the best possible opportunity to retain the information being given to them. One way of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials. Instructional materials according to Faurant (1995) are materials used by a teacher or that enable students assimilate what is being put across to them. Instructional materials represent fundamental resources for school for enhancing instruction, furthering the pursuit of knowledge and providing experiences of educational significance for class groups or for individual students.
Teachers need instructional materials in every aspect of teaching. They need materials for background information on the subject they are teaching. Teachers often use instructional materials for lesson planning. These materials are also needed by teachers to assess the knowledge of their student (Sotayo2001).
One of such instructional materials is a “flip chart”. A flip chart is a stationery item consisting of a pad of large paper sheets, supported on a tripod or four legged easel. It is typically fixed to the upper edge of a white board, such charts are commonly used for presentation. A flip chat is thought to have been unvented by “Peter Kent” who built one to help him in a presentation. He went on to find the visual communication group Nobo pic.
A flip chart according to Collins English Dictionary (2003) is a pad, containing large sheets of paper that can be easily turned over, mounted on stand and used to represent reports and data while America Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, (2000) defined it as a chart consisting 0f sheets hinged at the top that can be flipped over to represent information sequentially.
A lip chart is commonly supported on a tripod, flip chart come in various forms. Some of these are:
Stand alone flip chart: Resembles a big isosceles triangle box usually six on a table. Imagine a book that you would open at 27dgeree angle and then lay on a table. The paper is flipped from one side to the top of the triangle box to the other.
Metallic tripod (Oreasel) stand: usually have 3 or 4 metallic legs that linked together at one extremity. A support board is attached to two of these, led to support the large paper pad. This is the common type of flip chart stand.
Metallic mount on wheel usually has a flat based to support the paper and is mounted on one or two legs that then have a set of wheels. The advantages of these more recent forms of stands are that it is easier to transport the flip chart from one location to another. Flip chart can be placed on an easel or held. The teacher stands besides the flip chart referring to the text printed at the back of necessary. As each page is finished the teacher flip it over to the back. Flip are easier to use when the pages facing the group have large print and illustrations.
Meanwhile, many questions have been raised on the effectiveness of this “Flip chart” in the teaching and learning of integrated science. This study is therefore undertaken to answer some of these questions. In other words, it is the focus of this study to investigate the effects of “Flip Chart” on students’ retention of concepts and their overall achievement in integrated science.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The world as a whole and developing countries in particular are continuously faced with enormous educational problems which the conventional classroom settings and learning methods cannot cope with. Example of such problems is the abstract nature of some concepts especially in science, leading to students’ poor performance in subject. Hence the adoption off a new teaching strategy with the use of a flip chart. It is therefore the problem of this to determine the need to explore how flip chart can enhance teaching and learning of integrated science most especially the human skeletal system
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of flip chart in teaching and learning of human skeletal system in some selected secondary schools in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State
This study answered the following questions:
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study upon completion will be of help to both teachers and learners, as it will enlighten them with the importance of flip chart in classes such as in removing the boredom and recreating learning interest i.e. it aid students’ better understanding and comprehension of the topic being taught. This eventually will exist in turning out well groomed graduate. It will also enable those in government or curriculum planners to see reason why flips charts should be provided for use in schools. It will equally assist the teachers to achieve their aim and objective of the topic “Human skeletal system” being taught to the learners within a short time. It will also open the eye of educational technologist to the production of flip chart
The study covers only four selected senior secondary schools in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State.
The schools are in the same geographical area which includes:
DEFINITION OF TERMS
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