This study, ENTREPRENEURAL EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR REDUCING VIOLENCE AMONG NIGERIA YOUTH FOR SUSTAINABILITY contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.1.1 CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP
2.1.2 CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
2.1.3 CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS
2.1.4 THE PURPOSE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
2.1.5 THE CONCEPT OF YOUTH EMPOWERMENT
2.1.6 CHALLENGES FACING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND YOUTH EMPOWERMENT IN NIGERIA
2.1.7 CONCEPT OF VIOLENCE
2.1.8 FACTORS THAT INCREASE VIOLENCE RATE IN NIGERIA
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.2.1 THE COGNITIVE THEORY BY TAYLOR (1998)
2.2.2 THE ECOLOGICAL APPROACH THEORY BY ALDRICH HOWARD
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.5 SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Entrepreneurship is a widely used term and is seldom completely understood by many who use it. It is a step in the right direction in the achievement of development. The need for entrepreneurship education started emerging in the mid 1980s. This is because before this period, unemployment and poverty were not a national concern as it is currently. However, political instability and inconsistencies in the social-economic policies of successive government led to the emergence of high level unemployment in Nigeria. In the mid-80s, the Nigeria economy collapsed while youth and graduate unemployment hit the roof. There was large-scale layoff of workers and early retirements as a result of structural adjustment policies and bad economic trends in the country. In the face of this situation, entrepreneurship, which would have salvaged the situation, was not encouraged. It has been observed that tertiary education has not been properly included in the philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment that will promote pride in primitive work and self-discipline, encouraging people to take part actively and freely in discussions and decisions affecting their general welfare, promoting new sets of attitudes and culture for their attainment of future challenges. Ayodele (2006) identified inadequate capital to be one of the principal factors hindering entrepreneurship in the country. Other problems identified by ayodele (2006) included irrelevant education that is bookish, theoretic and “white-collar job” oriented. Also, Nigeria’s macro-economic environment is unhealthy and unstable for a virile entrepreneurship to sustain the economy. In addition, government programs are not designed to promote entrepreneurship, looking at the country-Nigeria, the level of infrastructural development provided by the government is still very low and this has been affecting to a very high extent the level of productivity and entrepreneurial activities in the country. The high rate of many business enterprises as winding up prematurely consequent upon the employable and unemployable youths and adults idle away. It is against this backdrop that this paper set to look into entrepreneurship education as a tool for sustainable economy in Nigeria. Many academic disciplines have contributed their perspectives on the concept of entrepreneurship, including psychology, sociology, economics, and management. An economist views entrepreneurship in the context of the combination of resources, labor, materials, and other assets such that their value is greater together than individually. From management perspective, entrepreneurship would entail the introduction of a change, an innovation, or a new order. To a psychologist, an entrepreneur would be analyzed as a person typically driven by the need to obtain or attain a specific goal, to experiment, to accomplish, or perhaps to escape the authority of others. There is a very little consensus on the definition of the term entrepreneur both within and across disciplines; most definitions nonetheless highlight qualities such as competitiveness, creativity, and the ability to grow a business. Education is a veritable tool for enhancing economic growth and national development. It is seen as the cornerstone of development because it forms the basis of literacy, skill acquisition, technological advancement, knowledge acquisition and ability to harness the natural resources of the environment. Ayara in antai and anam (2009) asserts that education creates better citizens and helps to upgrade the general standard of living in a society. The education sector in any country is very important because education supplies the skilled manpower needed for the achievement of national economic goals and objectives. In the view of adeogun (2003), education is a major instrument for tackling unemployment, poverty and ignorance. Some of the cardinal aims of education according to the national policy on education (2004:6) include; the development of the intellectual capacity of individuals to understand and appreciate their environment and the acquisition of both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to develop into useful members of the community. This objective of education is laudable and could be attained in the universities, through appropriate quality education and research. University is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate and postgraduate education. One of the objectives of tertiary institutions, according to the national policy on education, (2004) include: acquiring both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful members of the society. Unfortunately, the possession of university degrees is no longer a guarantee for employment. Many young graduates continue to roam the streets in search of jobs. This has led to a general feeling of despondency among them. The high rate of graduate unemployment in Nigeria has been blamed on the fact that most graduates from Nigerian universities are unemployable (chiaha and agu, 2013). It is due to this high unemployment rate among graduates in universities that the national universities commission (NUC) introduced entrepreneurship education in the university curriculum as a compulsory course (uzoka, 2008). With the introduction of entrepreneurship education in the curriculum of Nigerian universities by the NUC, it becomes obvious that entrepreneurship education is considered an effective way of equipping graduates with the desired employability skills.
For Ebele (2008), entrepreneurship education is the teaching of knowledge and a skill that enables the students to plan, start and run their own business. In the view of Olawolu and Kaegon (2012), entrepreneurship education prepares youths to be responsible and entering individuals who become entrepreneurial thinkers by exposing them to real life learning experiences where they will be required to think, take risks, manage circumstances and incidentally learn from the outcome. Okereke and okorafor (2011) assert that entrepreneurship education is a potent and viable tool for self-empowerment, job and wealth creation. Entrepreneurship education entrails teaching students, learners and would-be business men, equipping the trainees with skills needed for teaching responsibility and developing initiatives of prospective trainees (ezeani, 2012). Entrepreneurship education entails philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment promoting new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of future challenges (ogundele, akingbade and akinlabi, 2012). Entrepreneurship education is the type of education which has the ability to impact on the growth and development of an enterprise through technical and vocational training. Actually entrepreneurship education has its peculiar learning and teaching approaches. Solomon (2007), highlighted entrepreneurship education teaching approaches to include business then writing, lecture by professionals, case studies, chose program supervision and experimental learning, visit of experts on site. Above all the approaches of teaching and learning entrepreneurship education mentioned above, the experimental teaching which involves pragmatic approach seem to be the best base on the studies of (solomon and tarabisky 1999). Young people can build confidence in their abilities to become entrepreneurs and be empowered in their future as a result of varieties of entrepreneurial activities provided through education.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The population in Nigeria has been on steady increase and job opportunities are getting leaner and leaner especially for graduates. The implication is that, unemployable graduates are scattered all over the country, causing problems. Additionally, university education in Nigeria has had a tremendous expansion with increasing number of graduates, but then, most of these graduates are unemployed because they do not have the right and required skills to be self-employed or be employed. The situation of graduate unemployment has resulted in youth restiveness in the form of kidnapping, prostitution, armed robbery, political thuggery and advanced fee fraud. A proper appraisal of the situation shows that most of these graduates engage in these activities because they lack requisite skills that enhance self-employment. Lack of employability skills resulting from inadequate and obsolete skill training in the universities in south- eastern Nigeria for the past few years has thrown some university graduates into the labor market in search of jobs. This pathetic situation prompted the establishment of the entrepreneurship development centers for the purpose of inculcating entrepreneurial skills in prospective graduates. This implies that if the existing educational programs and practices in our universities can enable students to acquire adequate skills and talents required by employers and also as self-employed individuals, these students would not often be unemployed upon graduation from university. Most authors have argued that entrepreneurship education imbues students with requisite entrepreneurial skills thereby empowering them for self-reliance and this enhances the reduction in crimes often attributed to them. Following the implicit trust by policy makers that entrepreneurship education as presently configured can impact significant entrepreneurial traits in undergraduates, this study investigates the appropriateness and veracity of this trust. The study therefore critically examined the impact of entrepreneurship education on the enhancement of entrepreneurial skills among undergraduates through training programs provided at the centers for entrepreneurship studies in federal universities in south-eastern Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective is to find out the influence of entrepreneurial education on violence reduction among the Nigeria youths, specifically the study intends to:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions were formulated to guide the research so as to arrive at a valid conclusion:
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant because it is expected to aid policy-makers on how to effectively combat youth unemployment in Nigeria. Apart from that, it will guide the government in particular to be better equipped to formulate strong macro-economic policies to cushion the effect of unemployment. Similarly, study will guide the unemployed youth to change their attitude and mind-set towards committing, instead show strong willingness to take advantage of the measures that government is putting in place to be self-employed and create jobs for others. By doing so, the society will be better off and equally provide crime-free society for foreign investment. Members of the society who take investment outside the shores of Nigeria will see the need to invest in the country and give employment to the teeming jobless youth. The remaining part of this paper is structured into the following parts; review of related literature, methodology, results and discussions, conclusion and recommendation.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is wide. This is because the problem of unemployment and violence among youth is a problem that affects the economy. Therefore, the researcher intends to limit the study of the impact of youth unemployment on Markudi local government area in benue state, but will generalize the result with what can be obtainable in the Nigerian economy as a whole.
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
However, in the course of carrying out this research work, the researcher can foresee some limitations which include; insufficient financing, insufficient data for the research work and the time required for the project to be concluded.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Entrepreneurial education: seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings. Variations of entrepreneurship education are offered at all levels of schooling from primary or secondary schools through graduate university programs.
Unemployment: the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force.
Violence: behavior involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something.
Youth: the period between childhood and adult age.
Sustainability: the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level
Reduction: the action or fact of making something smaller or less in amount, degree, or size.
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