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This study, ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS OF ADULT LEARNERS contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.




This study evaluated the environmental factors on teaching and learning process of adults learners in Yetfund skill development centre Abeokuta. One hundred respondents were used, ten from carpentry, one from bricklayer, twenty six from Tailoring, twenty six from Hair Dressing, ten from Catering, two from Decoration, four from Bead making, one from welding, nine from Make-up, six from trading, and five from elect/elect respectively. Random sampling techniques was used for the study and the data collected was analysed using simple percentage, the findings of the study show that environment have great impact in teaching learning process of adult learners. Based on the findings and conclusions, it is recommended among others that the government and other stakeholders in charge of literacy programme must provide acoustics for the learner bearing in mind that adult learners have different problems such as learning efficiency.

Key words: ANF, Literacy, Environmental, Adult Learners, Stakeholders.




Background to the Problem

Statement of the Problem

Significance of the Study

Scope of the Study

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions

Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO                                        


Concept of Adulthood

Definition of Adult Learners

Characteristics of Adult Learners

Concept of Environment

Interaction between Learners and Learning Environment

Integration Technology fully into the Learning Environment

The School Built Environment

Temperature and Air Quality






Research Design

Population of the Study

Sample an sampling Techniques

Research Instrument

Validity of Instrument

Data Collection

Data Analysis



4.1       Demographic Data Analysis

4.2       Analysis of Data Collection



Discussion of Findings






1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the problem

Environment could be described as the sum total of what is around something or someone. It includes living things and natural forces. The environment of living things provides conditions for development and growth, as well as danger and damage; as living things do not simply exist in their environment, they constantly interact with it. Organisms change in response to conditions in their environment and the environment consists of the interactions among plants, animals, soil, water, temperature, light and to other living and non-living things (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000).

Hence the word environment is used to talk about many things by people in different fields of knowledge (like history, geography or biology) use the differently). An electromagnetic environment is the various radio waves that equipment such as radio and reader can meet. Galactic environment refers to condition between the stove.

It is universally accepted, that education enables individuals to contribute to the development and improvement in the quality of life for themselves, their communities and the nation as a whole.

The school environment refers to factors within the school that influence the teaching-learning process. The school environment includes classrooms, library, technical workshops, teachers’ quality, teaching methods, peers, among others variables that can affect the teaching–learning process (Ajayi 2001). The extent to which pupils learn could be enhanced depending on what the school environment provides to the learners and the teacher.

It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching-learning process and academic performance of pupils. Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud and Turner (2008) quoting Marsden (2005) which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment, school facilities were significantly related to students academic achievement in schools.

In developed countries like the United Kingdom and the Unites States of America, teaching and learning may not be affected by similar challenges as in the developing countries. As the developing countries talk of awareness and wastage due to illiteracy of the parents, the developed countries have concentrated in funding their education without fear of any wastage or poor enrolment (MOEST: Report on Sector Review and Development, 2003).

In New York, the government has put up measures to ensure all schools have all the required physical facilities, instructional materials among others variables that may lead to effective teaching-learning process. Instructional materials are a major component in the process of teaching and learning and textbooks are often the most cost effective means of improving academic achievement and increasing the efficiency of schools (Psachropoulous&Woodhall, 1995).

In the developing countries, poor learning environments have always been identified as key factors that lead to poor performance in public primary schools (UNICEF, 2003). This is due to overstretching of the available resources due to increased enrolment. In Uganda, physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on the teachers, pupils and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms and inconsistent temperatures make teaching-learning process difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among the pupils and higher absentee rates among pupils (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001 and Ostendorf, 2001).

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on pupils’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities which creates uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for the teachers combined with frustrating behaviour by the pupil including poor concentration also have an effect on the teaching learning process. The situation is not any different here in Kenya where several schools suffer due to lack of or inadequacy of physical facilities and instructional materials (UNICEF, 2003). Unless schools are adequately provided with physical facilities and instructional materials, effective teaching and learning may not take place.

Class size has also been an issue that affects the teaching-learning process in most schools in the developing countries. In Kenya, since the inception of Free Primary Education (FPE), there has been increased enrolment which leads to overcrowding in classrooms making the work of the teacher difficult since he/she cannot easily move around in the classroom (Wabuoba, 2011) quoted in Chuma (2012)

The school administration is a crucial factor in the success of a school. The head teacher should be in a position to ensure that all factors within the school that make the school environment favourable for teaching-learning process be put in place to ensure quality standards are maintained. The Education Act of 1968 stipulates that the head teacher is responsible for overall management, control and maintenance of standards in the schools and is accountable for all that happens in the school. He is charged with the duty of planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting (Okumbe, 2001). Teaching-learning process can be measured through assessment that is done to students using continuous assessment tests (CATS), standardized examination.

In Lower Nyokal division school environmental factors such as availability of instructional materials, availability of physical facilities, class size and school location are factors within the school that may affect the teaching-learning process in Homa-Bay district. Effective teaching-learning process may not take place when rate of repetition, drop out and absenteeism seems to be high in the division and this affects performance of learners.

In psychology and medicine a persons environment is the people physical things, places and events that the person lives with. The environment affects the persons behaviour. It affects the persons body, mind and heart (Goliber 2003). Discussions on nature versus nuture are sometimes framed as heredity versus environment. The earth is the only planet in the solar system that support life. In biology and ecology the environment is all of the natural materials and living things including sunlight. This is also called the natural environment. Some people call themselves environmentalists and these people think we must protect the environment (to keep it safte). They think people should not put so much pollution (waste) into the environment. The important things in the environment that we value are called sunlight, and forests. These are renewable natural resources because more grows naturally when we use them. Non-renewable natural resources are important things in the environment that do not come back naturally, for example coal and natural grass (Banning 2001).

Furthermore, the extent to which learner learning could be enhanced depend on the location  within the school compound, the structure of the classroom, availability of instructional facilities and access ones. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcome of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the learners.

  • Statement of the problem

One of the factors that effects academic performance is school environment location or site of the school. This is so because in a situation whereby the school is sited in a noisy area like airport, where activities disrupt the teaching or learning of the adult. One will not expect such adult learners in this area to be doing well academically. Onkwo (2004) in his note says that a conducive environment enhances a learnersgrowth and development. Learners feel happy in a peaceful and friendly environment where as schools sited in noisy urban streets are associated with deficits in mental concentration leading to pupils poor performance.

Noise is anything that interferes with teaching or learning processing strategies, feelings for personal control as well as their level of arousal. Economic, motivational and emotion are also other factors that influences academic performance of learners (Franser 1978). Then while some are not so well equipped, the gadgets, resources, facilities in both types of community will influence the learning processes of the learners. Adult learners cannot single handedly achieve all their goals. So they must be equipped with adequate technology facilities such as textbooks, clients, computer, visual and audio-visual aids, photographs and posters.

  • Significance of the study

This study will provide information for educators, corporate bodies and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to there centre, which may consequently lead to enhancing students educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted is to serve as literature for individual who may want to carry out research on similar topics in the same or related field, and also the entire society will be a beneficiary of the study as individuals, organizations, government parastatals, religions, home etc. who lay their hands on this research work will have the in-depth knowledge of the effect of environment on teaching adult learners.

  • Scope of the study

The study covered learning process of adult learners in Yetfund Skill Development Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State.

  • Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental factors on teaching and learning process of adult learner, a case study of yetfund skill development centre, Abeokuta.

  • Research questions
  • What are the relationship between environment and the learners performance?
  • Does lack of school facilities affect learner performance?
  • Does overcrowded class size affect the performance of adult learners?

Definition of terms

Adult learner: A person who is 18 years and above who is involved in forms of learning. They can also be called mature learner, adult returner, adult student and returning adult.

Factors: Constituent or element that brings about certain effects or results, or indicates a specific multiple, number, or quantity.

Environment: The aggregate of surrounding things, conditions or influences; surrounding; milieu

Teaching: Impacting knowledge or skill or instruct (someone) as to how to do something by example or experience

Learning: The acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, study, or by being taught.

School Environment: A school’s physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding.

Learning Attitude: A feeling or way of thinking that affects a person’s behavior.

Classroom Environment: Is the intellectual, social, emotional and physical environments in which pupils learn.

School Management: They provide a concise reference material on the basic concept of school.

Accessories Planning: The processing of setting goals and developing strategies in a data collection.

Instructional Space Planning: This is to provide vision to guide the creation, mana gement.

Administrative Space Planning: An analysis, and administration general responsibilities.


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