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This study investigated the factors affecting pupils’ performance in Early Childhood Care and Education in Abeokuta South Local government of Ogun State. The sample comprised 50 pupils consisting of 35 female and 15 male pupils selected using cluster sample techniques. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The instrument was rated on a 4-point linkert scale type of Strongly Agree, Agree, Strongly Disagree, and Disagree. Data were analyzed using frequency count and percentage. The results showed that teachers, school, parent and even the pupils themselves influence the performance of pupils. The study recommended among others that the management of pre-schools should provide adequate teaching and learning facilities as well as educationally stimulating environment to bring about improved performance of pupils during preschools and beyond.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1 Concept of Early Childhood Care and Education
2.2.1 Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Learning Theory
2.2.2 Piaget’s Constructivist Theory
2.2.3 David Kolb Experimental Learning Theory
2.4 Early Childhood Care and Education in Nigeria
2.4.1 Factors Affecting Performance of Pupils in Early Childhood Care and Education
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
3.5 Validating of Research Instruments
3.6 Method of Data Collection
3.7 Technique of Data Analysis
Presentation Analysis and Discussion of Data
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education starts from cradle. The future of a nation’s socio-economic and political well being lies with the quality of Children’s education because they are the future leaders. If they have a shaky foundation when it comes to education, it will surely affect the nation. Many children in Nigeria and Africa have no opportunity to experience the much needed early childhood education.
The earliest years of a child’s life are keys to predicting ultimate success in school and life. Recent research findings pointing to the importance of the first three years in brain development have serious implication for education. These early learning experiences are crucial determining factors for emotional and intellectual development and ultimately neurological development is largely a result of the learning that takes place starting at birth and during the earliest years of life. Scientists now believe that a young child’s brain needs certain types of stimulation to develop properly. Without that stimulation, certain types of learning will not be possible when the child enter school (primary school).
The early years from birth to five years of age are of important time in any child’s life. Children go through a huge variety of learning stages during this time, making great steps, and what they learn at a young age offers an important foundation for their learning in later life. The learning process starts from home and then moved to the school and the responsibility lies upon the parents who are at home and the teachers who teach them in school.
The early childhood care and education (ECCE) is a pre-primary care and education given to aid physical, social, psychological and mental growth and development of the child. This form of education is the one captured variedly as Day-Care, play group, crèche, Nursery and kindergarten.
In his own view Ogameruaye (2010) sees ECCE basically as that which is the care and education of children from birth to primary school age (5+ or 6years), focusing on children’s survival, growth, development and learning including health, nutrition, hygiene, as well as cognitive, social, physical and emotional development. In other words, ECCE/ECCDE is the children’s care, development and education from birth to the period of exposure to primary schooling experience in the formal, informal and non-formal settings. The care in this context is given from birth and the aspect of education takes off from around the age of two when cognition begin to manifest, i.e. ability to acquire knowledge: the mental faculty or process of acquiring knowledge by use of reasoning, intuition, or perception. Both the care and education promote child’s growth and development.
Early childhood care and education in Nigeria has been facing some challenges since inception. The importance of early childhood care and education can not be over emphasized. Speaking at a 1-day stakeholder’s meeting on the dissemination of pre-service and in service report for Early Childhood Development, the minister of state education in Nigeria Barrkeneth Gbagi stressed the importance of child education and stated that if not tackled, the standard of education in Nigeria will continue to dwindle because Early Childhood Care and Education form the basis of how the children turns out in the future. He added that government has been doing everything in its power to find the solution to the problem of the sudden decline of education in the country.
There are many factors that are contributing to the problem of Early Childhood Education in Nigeria. But there are some major factors (like Teachers factors, School factors, Pupils Factors and Parental Factor) that are militating against ECCE.
The two surveys carried out independently by Nigeria Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) between 2003 and 2004, revealed that the few children who have access to early child Development programme learn in poor condition (school factor) with the teachers factor being the most critical. The sub-sector is seriously plagued by inadequate supply of qualified teachers to provide care and support to the growing children. Many parents see no need for their ward to be enrolled for Early Childhood Education due to their level of literacy (Parental factor) whereas due to some pupils’ health stature at their early life, they tend not to be fit for ECCE likewise the readiness of the pupil for the education (Pupils Factor).
These are our leaders of tomorrow and the researcher believes no amount of sacrifice will be too small for the upbringing of our nation’s future. What can we say then, where shall we go from here, what is our reaction as an individual toward these stated issues, what is the reaction of the government, what is the way forward?
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite the importance of early childhood care and education to the physical, emotional, social and intellectual development of the child and to the nation at large, it is operation in Nigeria especially in the rural and sub-urban. Communities still suffer a lot of setbacks. Again, several factors are perceived to affect the all round development of Pre-Schoolers especially in relation to their academic performance. Therefore, this study is an attempt to examine the factors that affect the academic performance of pupils in early childhood care and education in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the factors affecting pupils’ performance in pre-primary school. It will also suggest possible solution to the factors affecting pupils’ performance in early childhood care and education and also show how parent, teacher, school and the pupils themselves can be of help in enhancing pupils’ performance in Early Childhood Education.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
This research work shall try to find answers to the following research question
- Why do the pupils in pre-school perform poorly in their studies?
- What are the factors responsible for poor performance of pupils in Early Childhood Care and Education?
- To what extent do the identified affect pupils’ performance in Early Childhood Care and Education?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is restricted to the factors affecting the academic performance of pupils in early childhood education in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State. The study is limited to children in crèche, kindergarten and nursery and whose age range are Zero to five years (0-5).
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of this study will serve as n eye opener to the parent on how they can help their wards to achieve the best academic performance likewise also it will help the teacher on what to focus on when teaching the pre-schoolers.
It will also help the school management to know what and what to do and to provide for the proper upbringing of these wards.
Hence, improvement will be achieved in the performance of the pre-schoolers in the school.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
During the course of this study, the following terms were used.
- Early Childhood: This is the period of a child’s life between the ages of zero to five years (0-5).
- Education: Is the impartation of knowledge, skill, virtue, norms and culture from one person (more knowledgeable) to another (less knowledgeable).
- Early Childhood Education: This is the foundational education given to pupils between the ages of 0-5years.
- Kindergarten: A Nursery School
- Nursery School: A school for children between three and five years old.
- Crèche: A school for children between age zero to three years (0-3).
Keywords: EXAMINATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING PUPILS PERFORMANCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION
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