This study, FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACQUISITION OF SCIENTIFIC SKILLS COMMONLY EMPHASIZED BY SCIENCE TEACHERS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CLASSES contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
This study examining factory affecting acquisition of scientific skills commonly emphasized by science teachers in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Four randomly selected secondary school were used for the study.
A hundred (100) item questionnaire was developed to collect teachers views and understanding of these science process skills and their uses in the science class
The findings from this study indicate that
A numbers of suggestions and recommendations were made based on these findings
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE:- GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Background of Study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of Study
Significance of the study
2.1 Historical Background of Science Education
2.2 What is Integrated Science
2.3 Reason for Studying Integrated Science
2.4 The Nation of Scientific Skills
2.5 The Categories of the scientific skills
2.6 Factors militating against the acquisition of scientific skills
2.7 Importance of scientific skills
2.8 The factors that hinder science development
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Research Population
3.4 Sample and Sampling technique
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Method of Data Collection
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Analysis of Data and Discussion
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 The Major Finding from this Study are as follows
Science from Latin scientia, meaning knowledge is a systematic enterprise that buids and organized knowledge in the from of testable explanation and predictions about the universe (Aristotle 2000).
Science often refers to a way of pursing knowledge not only the knowledge itself it is “often treated as synonymous with natural and physical science and thus restricted to those branches of study that related to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws sometime with implied exclusion of pure mathematic. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use. This narrower sense of
“Science” developed as scientists such as Jahannes Kepler Galileo Galilel and Isaac Newton began motion. In his period it became more common to refers to natural philosophy as “natural science” over the course of the 19th century the word “science” became in creasinly associated with scientific method a disciplined way to study the natural world including physics, chemistry, geology and biology.
This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science similarity several other major area of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubic of “science” such as formal science and applied science (Ziman 2002).
SCIENCE PRE-PHILDSOPHICAL THINGS
A major turning point in the history of early philosophical science was the controversial but successful attempt by socrate to apply philosophy to the study of human thing including human nature, the nature of political communities and human knowledge itself. He criticized the order types of study of physics as too purely speculative, and lacking in self criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order explaining things merely in terms of motion and mater (Socrate 2001).
During late antiquity and the early middle ages, the Aristotelian approach to injuries on natural phenomenon was use some ancient knowledge was lost or in some case kept in obscurity during the fall of the roman empire and political struggles.
However, the general field of science, or natural philosophy as it was called, were presumed through the works of the early encycrodists like is idore of sevilled Islamic science provided mush of the late medieval period Europeans recovered some ancient knowledge by translations of texts and they built their work up on the knowledge of Aristotle, ptoineny, cuclide and others works (Aristotle 2003).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Students often complain about subject subjects at advanced level and ordinary level most are faced with the problem of whether to continue with the science subject or to discard it. complaints from pupils often range from the difficulty of the subjects from to problem of examination and teachers method teaching (Bajah 2004)
THE PRODUCT OF SCIENCE
The product of content of science was the method being base upon the scientist in which the students are forced to learn through rate learning. The product of content of science entails the facts, concepts theories and law on the natural phenomena with which the scientist are formed. In this method of teaching; laws like law of conservation of mass, Anoyadro’s law and the theory like is no improvement in science subject but bring about the failure of the content approach.
Therefore for the improvement of the science subject, the process of science is then brought about which constitutes the line up of activities embarked up by scientific in the course of their investigations, this scientific process skill. Is categorized into groups the first category is called the lower level of operation and the second category is called the upper level of operation, examples of these process skill are observation recording, classification etc.
THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE
The introduction of the science process approach improve the teaching and learning process and helps to adopt scientific approach to every day life. This calls for the ability to formulate hypothesis, decides on the experiment and draw up conclusion the process approach also help in the development of individual potentials and in contribution to the solution of problem of over every changing world, help in training and development of maturity mind and to help the people’s appreciation and understanding of this world and limit of man’s control over nature.
VALUES OF SCIENCE
Value intersect with science in three primary ways. First, there are values, particularly epistemic values, which guide scientific research itself. Second, the scientific enterprise is always embedded in some particular culture and values enter science through its individual practitioners, whether consciously or not. Finally, values emerge from science both as a product and process, and may be redistributed more broadly in the culture or society.
Also, scientific discoveries may pose new social challenges about value’s, through the values themselves may be conventional (Douglas All chin 2002).
A fundamental feature of science, as conceived by most scientists, is that it deals with facts, not values. Further, science is objective, values are not. These benchmarks can often see themselves as working in the privileged domain of certain and permanent knowledge. Such views of science are also closely allied in the public sphere with the authority of scientists and the powerful imprimatur of evidence as “scientific”.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The current situation of science teaching and learning in Nigeria is a concern to all including government and the society at large. Research indicates that many students found science to be difficult, boring and not interesting to them. Large class sizes, inadequate funding, insufficient curriculum resources, poor teaching skill and lack of supports for teacher among other factures further limit the quality of science teaching and learning in Nigeria schools. To solve these lingering problems are needs to develop a realistic picture of what is currently happening in the teaching and learning of science in Nigeria schools and also to identify the factors that are limiting to quality of science education.
Furthermore, one needs to develop a reasonable ideal picture for which the nation can strive towards with in the existing resource limitation.
Therefore the problem of the study is to investigate factors affecting the acquisition of scientific skill commonly emphasized by science teachers and important of scientific skill.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study will seek to find answer to the following question?
1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to examine the factor affecting the acquisition of scientific skill commonly emphasized by science teachers in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State.
The study would examine the affects of teachers qualification in imparting scientific skill in students.
To examine the effect of gender on the acquisition of the skills.
Investigation the relationships between the teachers attendance of workshops and seminars and the acquisition of science skills his students.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In an effort to improving the teaching of science in Nigeria secondary schools and make the learning of science more attractive to students, this study makes the following important contributions to knowledge and education.
Firstly, this study provides science educators, science curriculum planners and government with detailed information about the actual picture of science teaching science learning, and educational practices in secondary schools, and realistic, cost effective was of improving the situation.
This in turn can help in planning and formulating further policies for science education in secondary schools.
Secondly, this study engage key stakeholders in science education in revealing the actual and ideal pictures and gaining their support for recommendations for closing the gap.
Thirdly, this study provides on opportunity to apply a research design develop in Austrilia to a developing nation Africa, and to evaluate the effectiveness of that research design and compare findings between a developed and developing countries education system.
This study is limited to four schools in Yewa North Local Government. This is the mush that finds and time would allow.
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