This study, FACTORS INFLUENCING PORNOGRAPHY WATCHING AMONG NIGERIA YOUTH contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.2 YOUTHS AND TV SHOWS/MOVIES
2.3 REASONS FOR ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
There is no single universal definition for the word “Youth”. Some define it as persons whose age bracket ranges between the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood, while others fix age limits to express it. On the other hand, there are also others who define the term ‘youth’ from biological and psychological developmental perspectives as well as by considering both physical development and maturity. Therefore, it is important to define the “youth” in order to provide the framework of this research. In doing so, Strelitz, (2005) notes that “the concept of childhood and adulthood do not [necessarily] refer to fixed points on a continuum as they are not physiological facts but social constructions.” (2005:52) on the other hand, Swedish youth researcher Fornas cited by Strelitz (2005) pointed that there is little agreement among researchers on an exact definition of the term youth. Fornas, however, pointed to three different discourses that frame the concept as, Firstly, youth refers to a particular stage in physiological development; secondly, it is a social category framed by particular social institutions and rituals, and thirdly, youth is culturally determined by its interplay with musical, visual and verbal signs that mark this stage as being different from that of the child or adult. (Strelitz, 2005:53) However, Strelitz, (2005) noted that “much of the literature on youth points to the centrality of the media to the creation and sustenance of individual and group identities’’. It is widely acceptable that the youth express themselves to an unusual degree in texts, pictures, music and styles. These are important points because, it is in the assumption that pornographic media would potentially create youth identity. On the other hand, Jennings, 2004 cited by Assefa, (2005) stated that the most commonly used international definition of youth is between the ages of 16-24. Assefa, (2005), “adolescence is a very dynamic and unstable phase where the individual has to acquire the skills to fulfil adult roles and norms and has to search for and develop an identity. It is a period of rapid physical and intellectual development and emotional intensity.
The proliferation and mainstreaming of pornography over the last 2 decades, especially through the Internet, have influenced youth culture and adolescent development in unprecedented and diverse ways (Lofgren-M ¨ artenson&Mansson, 2010; McNair, 2002; Paul, 2005; Peter &Valkenburg, 2007). ˚ Internet-enabled devices have indiscriminately allowed people of all ages to encounter, consume, create, and distribute sexually explicit content, and a growing body of data reveal these phenomena are increasingly common for adolescents worldwide (Flood, 2007; Haggstr ¨ om-Nordin, Sanberg, Hanson, ¨ &Tyden, 2006; Lo & Wei, 2005; Wolak, Mitchell, &Finkelhor, 2007). Relative ´ to other media, the Internet is considered a highly sexualized environment (Cooper, Boies, Maheu, & Greenfield, 1999; Peter &Valkenburg, 2006a), and research has shown significant increases in the number of youth who are intentionally or accidentally encountering pornographic material online (Mitchell, Wolak, &Finkelhor, 2007; Wolak et al., 2007). Given these circumstances, one may assume that adolescents’ access to pornography via the Internet is unmatched by any other medium (Mitchell, Wolak, &Finkelhor, 2007); the volume and range of sexually explicit content available on the Internet is remarkable. The evolving nature of technologically mediated pornographic content (e.g., real-time and interactional) provides novelty and variety at unprecedented speeds (Coopersmith, 2006). Additionally, the risk of cyberbullying, sexual victimization, or harassment from others is real and pervasive (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2011). Furthermore, the Internet is present and prioritized in the lives of many youth (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010; Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, &Zickur, 2010; Mitchell et al., 2007). For example, in the United States, 93% of all adolescents ages 12 to 17 use the Internet; 63% go online daily and 36% are online several times a day (Lenhart, Purcell et al., 2010). The World Internet Report surveyed 12 to 14 year olds from thirteen different countries and found that 100% of British youth, 98% of Israeli youth, 96% of Czech youth, and 95% of Canadian youth reported using the Internet regularly (Lawsky, 2008). Given that the average American teen owns 3.5 mobile devices (Lenhart, Purcell et al., 2010), it can be assumed a great deal of their online activity is portable, and therefore, largely unmonitored (Roberts, Foehr, &Rideout, 2005). This increasingly ubiquitous access to the Internet can be positive; for example, people of all ages are turning to this medium for information on sexual education and sexual health (Barak & Fisher, 2001), social connection (Cooper, Boies, Maheu, & Greenfield, 1999), work, shopping, entertainment, news, and academics.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Approximately one-third of the world’s population is made up of 2 billion young people under 18. They make up half the population in the least developed countries; less than a quarter in the most industrialized ones (UNICEF, 2004:61). Nevertheless, it is believed that youth everywhere share universal traits. They are fundamentally more optimistic, more open and curious than their adult counterparts. Youthful age is a time when individu 5 real life (Escobar-chaves, 2005:303). When sexual activity is mostly portrayed as a common behavior that can be done with little thought for emotional or physical repercussions, youth might see it as the thing to do. Collins, et al, (200:280) has identified the phenomena of media cultivation which is the initiation of sexual activities resulting from TV portraying sex as a focus of daily life when it may not be the reality. Wartella (2010:144) states that sexual images in the mass media can lead to homosexuality, prostitution, abusive sexual attitude, premarital sex, unprotected sexual practice and other abusive behaviour. Research findings (Watkins, 2008:36; Zaechuiz, 2002:10; Tejuoso, 2009: 20 Ijaduola, 2007:8) have shown that sexual activities among the young people have become regular occurrence, due to the increasing portrayal of sexual messages in the media especially television. Television programmes and shows most times depict risky sexual behavior as cool, fun and exciting with no discussion of the consequences. There is an increasing portrayal of sexual messages in television shows and movies in the Nigeria society today. This is combined with the vulnerable sexual nature of young people in relation to their exposure to sexually explicit media messages. The lack of studies in Nsukka urban area as to how these phenomena may have influenced the sexual behavior of young people is the problem that motivated this study.
The rate at which the immoral sexual behaviour of youth is increasing in Nsukka from the researcher’s observation is a source of concern. This is because most families have this category of persons in their homes and even if you don’t have youth in your home, you can access the rate of their immoral sexual behaviour from what you see on 4 the road, in schools, churches, markets, etc. Youth appearances and behaviours most of the time are not in order or acceptable. Some of the youth, because they want to belong, will do things that are unbelievable and disgracing to anyone that will hear or see them. These incredible things most of the time were learnt through watching television shows/movies or at times from friends and if they are not attended to now, will do our society more bad than good as time goes on. Therefore, this study envisions filling the above mentioned gaps and providing explanatory results regarding the factors that influence pornography watching among the youth.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that influence pornography watching among the Nigeria youth. Specifically the study intends to:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions guides the researcher to achieve the stated specified objective
H1: there is a significant relationship between pornography watching and of youth’s immoral sexual behavior
H1: there is a significant relationship between pornography watching and academic performance of youths
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