FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASE RATE OF POVERTY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENT

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This study, FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASE RATE OF POVERTY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENT contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASE RATE OF POVERTY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENT

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     POVERTY & EDUCATION

2.2     THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

2.3     LEVEL OF POVERTY IN NIGERIA

2.4     SUSTAINABILITY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

2.5     THE CONTRIBUTION OF CORRUPTION ON POVERTY

2.6     KEY FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO POVERTY IN NIGERIA

2.7     POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES IN NIGERIA

2.8     CONCLUSION

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1                     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Access to education is one of the important basic human rights in all societies. In Nigeria, the provision of education has been one of the most critical issues of government social policy especially since after independence in 1960. Poverty has however remained a stumbling block for most people to attain this basic right. Poverty is a universal social problem that cuts across nations, race, locations, culture and religion. It has been in existence from the time of the establishment of the human race on planet earth. Poverty stricken members of the human race have always struggled in a number of ways to attain decent living standards. Poverty presents a number of challenges to its victims such as access to proper health facilities, education, nutrition, employment and the realization of personal aspirations. Of particular concern to this study are challenges that poverty stricken students face in their quest for education. The plight of poverty stricken students in exasperated by stringent school policies that pertain the payment of fees, attitudes by teachers and fellow students, shortage of food, school wear and stationery. An unsupportive home environment further complicates the poverty stricken students’ drive to acquire decent education. The current economic crisis where the prices of basic goods are very high adds more suffering to the already poverty stricken students.

In Nigeria, widespread and severe poverty is a reality. It is a reality that depicts a lack of food, clothes, education and other basic amenities. Severely poor people lack the most basic necessities of life to a degree that it can be wondered how they manage to survive. There are several effects and deficiencies associated with poverty in Nigeria. One of the main effects of poverty is poor health, as is reflected in Nigeria’s high infant mortality and low life expectancy. Poor people in Nigeria face several health issues as they lack basic health amenities and competent medical practitioners. Most children do not have the opportunity of being immunized and this leads to certain physical defects in some of the children. Their health has become low priority and as they have little or no choices, they live with whatever they are provided with, whether healthy or not.

No qualms, education is an absolute human right that should be given to all human beings. In every nation, education should be accessible for every single citizen regardless of their status or social classes. And it is the core responsibility of governments to ensure this access. Education is linked and related to nation development. According to EFC (2002), “education is a key index of development. It has been documented that schooling improves productivity, health and reduces negative features of life such as child labor as well as bringing about empowerment” (Otive, 2006, p.1). In Nigeria, the accessibility of education is at stake. We get to see more and more people getting access to poverty rather than education. The Nigerian government has launched various Poverty Alleviation Programs starting from 80s and every new government seems to have their own Poverty Eradication or Alleviation Programs. Eventually, all these programs become an avenue for corruption and paving ways for embezzlement. For education to take place in Nigeria, poverty must be seriously addressed. Education has the capability of reducing poverty because once the majority of the people in the country are educated, they are likely to get jobs, earn living and the ability to provide the basic needs for their families. This is the strength and uniqueness of education in producing an excellent Human Capital for nation development and economy.

According to Aho, Lariviére and Martin (1998) ³7he concept of poverty has evolved in the history of economic thoughts, witnessing different stages of transition since the 18th century´. The second transition in the evolution of the concept of poverty began at the end of the colonial period with new awareness of the problem of poverty as it afflicts developing countries. The post-colonial period has been characterized by a deliberate transfer from the North to the South of the anti- poverty polices development in Europe during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Poverty has been traditionally understood to mean a lack of access to resources, productive assets and income resulting in a state of material deprivation (Baulch, 1996). The Nigerian government has failed to realize perhaps realized but ignored the power of education on country development and providing an excellent human capital for the society. It is high time that the Nigerian government took on board” the importance of education since it has been accepted worldwide that education plays a huge role in a country’s development and economy. The Nigerian government should rid their bodies of the virus of corruption and download the latest software of development and anti-poverty programs to combat the poverty to allow every citizen to have access to education. The Nigerian government has failed to provide a good infrastructure, there is a lack of teaching and learning material while you could see some lecturers at the universities continue using their 10 year-old teaching materials while 10-20 year-old equipment/instruments still survive in our labs.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Many Economists would argue that igniting economic growth and sustaining it is the surest and most sustainable way to fight poverty. Cross-country studies on economic growth and poverty reduction indicate that a 1% increase in growth has been associated on average with a 1.5% reduction in poverty (Hasan, Mitra and Ulubasoglu, 2007). The Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2004) report stated that there is a great deal of variation in how much economic growth has reduced poverty across countries and even within countries over different periods of time. In statistical terms, the report noted that variation in economic growth can explain only around 45% of the variation in poverty reduction

It is very bad to see a country called the “giant of Africa” become an “ant of Africa”. Besides, it is also very painful to see a country as blessed as Nigeria is with load of different natural resources and abundant human capital, still living in abject povery, 70 percent her citizen lives below the poverty line and surviving on less than $1 a day. Poverty has ripped the process of education apart and deprived people from getting proper access to education. Poverty has become the ‘boss’ with the help of corruption determining who should go to school and who should not. Poverty determines children’s faith. Huge numbers of boys are dropping out of school, loaded with evil intention and sophisticated weapons–declaring a war of robbery while girls fail to complete their studies and end up with early pregnancy. Some of them are so victimized by poverty that they have to sell their bodies on campus as a mean of survival. The impact of poverty on education is of great significance and it is tormenting to see students struggling and battling the hardship to study without any support from the government or their parents. It is depressing to see our graduates unemployed after all the hardships of studies and poverty. This has led to the development greater population of poor people in the country. The Nigerian government has turned a deaf ear to the people’s agony and blinded their eyes to the flood of poverty eroding our integrity and existence. Some programs were launched which were supposed to alleviate poverty in the country but the efforts were in vain due to self-interest and corruption. The Nigerian government has failed to provide a good infrastructure, there is a lack of teaching and learning material while you could see some lecturers at the universities continue using their 10 year-old teaching materials while 10-20 year-old equipment/instruments still survive in our labs. It is however the interest of this study investigate the factors influencing the increase rate of poverty in Nigeria and the effect it has on the academic performance in Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors influencing the increase rate of poverty in Nigeria and the effect it has on the academic performance in Nigeria. The specific objective that guide the study is:

  1. To investigate the effect of poverty on education in Nigeria
  2. To find out how education accessibility could alleviate poverty in Nigeria
  3. To find out the effect of poverty on the performance of secondary school students
  4. To know the various measure put in place to reduce the effect of poverty on education

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 The following research questions will guide the researcher during the course of this research to achieve the stated objectives above:

  1. What are the effects of poverty on education
  2. How can access to education help alleviate poverty in Nigeria
  3. What are the effect of poverty on the performance of secondary school students
  4. What measure can be put in place reduce the effect of poverty on Nigeria education process

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Nigeria has been blessed tremendously and generously with remarkable economic resources such as oil, cocoa, rubber and plantations. Despite all these natural resources and blessed assets, it is really lamentable to see an increasing number of Nigerians still living in absolute poverty in recent times. In the rural areas, poverty seems to be higher compared to urban areas. The effects of poverty in the country, the instability of the government and the country’s leadership have seriously damaged the educational system as well as its quality. The graduate unemployment rate is high and frightening as well as that of adults, and the number of children dropping out from schools, joining the street traders and snatch-thieves is alarming. Adequate planning, resources and materials are not invested and technological intervention is not incorporated. In this regard, this project will expose both the educationists, scholars in different sectors, the government at different levels, the schools and parents about what can be done to reduce poverty that is tearing our educational standards and quality apart. Besides, the paper proposes some solutions and makes recommendations through interviews which perhaps the Nigerian government will consider to raise the standard and quality of education in Nigeria.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study intends to covers at least three local government areas in Ogun state but due to some unforeseen constraints samples were taken only from Ado-Odo, Ota local government area in Ogun State.

1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This major constraint the researcher encountered in this study is limited time and insufficient fund to visit some important places.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Poverty: the state of being extremely poor

Factors: a circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result.

Influence: the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something

Academic performance:  the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.

Students:  someone who is studying in order to enter a particular profession

Keywords: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASE RATE OF POVERTY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENT


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