This study, FULANI HERDSMEN AND THE ISSUE OF NATIONAL SECURITY IN NIGERIA contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.3 RESEACH QUESTIONS
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
Every nation has its own source of livelihood and economic revenue. These sources of revenue are either from, human, natural, mineral resources, etc. Each region of Nigeria has their specific resources. The tapping of these resources automatically gives each region its major occupation. For instance, Abuja has marble and clay, Abia has gold and salt, Lagos has clay and crude oil etc. which makes them making them an economic producer of these resources.
All regions in Nigeria practice Agriculture because of the vast area of farmland, but each region has its unique soil and climatic condition; which makes the kind of farming practiced selective. The nation practices; Crop Production, Forestry and Wildlife Management, Livestock, Fisheries, Land Resources.
The Northern part of Nigeria basically deal in the massive production of Livestock (Cattle rearing) and some crops such asmillet, sorghum, and cowpea, while groundnut and sesame are significant minor crops. Wild foods also serve as an important supplement to the diet, especially during times of food shortage (Ambio, 2003).There has traditionally been a division between sedentary farmers made up of the Manga and Hausa people, and the nomadic pastoralists known as Fulani, however this has diminished in recent times (Haris, 1999).
Extensive livestock production in the form of pastoral livestock keeping is among the most suitable means of land use in arid areas of Africa because of its adaptability to highly variable environmental conditions (McCarthy et al., 2000). Livestock here signifies cattle, sheep and goats. In Nigeria, most pastoralists do not own land but graze their livestock in host communities (Awogbade, 1987). While a few have adopted the more sedentary type of animal husbandry, the increasing crises between farmers and pastoralist presupposes that grazing is a major means of animal rearing in Nigeria. The sedentary type of animal husbandry also proves to be more expensive, difficult to manage and inefficient for the rapid growing market of an ever increasing population like Nigeria (Muhammad et al., 2015)
The incessant resource conflicts witnessed in the tropicshave resulted in loss of lives, properties and environmental degradation as also witnessed in some developed countries such as Balkans (Hellstrom, 2001; Niemella et al, 2005). The Fulani Herds men have borne a large proportion of the blame for most conflict and environmental degradation in policy statements in the Guinea Savannah region of West African states (Thebaud and Batterburry, 2001). The production potential of grassland and livestock in the arid and semi-arid region is constrained by low andvariable rainfall (Thebaud and Batterbury, 2001; Ifatimehin, 2008). Therefore, there is a need for grazing movements to access pasture resources across regions in order to ensure foodsecurity for the herds. Hence, pastures, woody vegetation, water resources and land are taken as a common property resource as reported by Berger (2003). But the complex land-use system that has changed markedly over time, has culminated in the present day tension and conflicts between herds man and host communities. Jibo et al. (2001) reported that the Benue Valley region in Nigeria had witnessed violent conflicts enough to attract both State and National attention. Crops, livestock’s, water resources and other vegetal resources played key roles in the development, maintenance and projection of socio-economic strength of asociety (Schama, 1996). The Fulani herdsmen livelihood strategies had resulted in conflicts over the destruction of crops. The environmental degradation is perceived to be contributing enormously to the deterioration in ecosystem services to the environment of various communities. The increased provision of social services in towns, such as health centers, schools, and food aid as well as the increased economic opportunities has led to settlement and concentration of grazing in areas around such towns (Haro and Doyo 2005). These new unplanned settlements, together with their foreseen and unforeseen implications, are providing the basis for us to painfully learn that environmental resources are finite as human economy (population and resource utilization) hasexceeded them and are becoming limited asunsustainable utilization affects human, social, economic and environmental sustainability.
In Nigeria, there is a large proportion of the population involved in herding and are making a significant contribution to the economy. The groups of people that are actively involved in pastoral activities in Nigeria are the Kanembu, Kwoya, Manga, Fulbe (Fulani) and the Shuwa Arabs. The Fulbe are the largest owners of livestock accounting for about 90% of the nation’s stock, contributing one third of the Agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 3.2% of the national GDP (Nuru, 1984; Fabusoro and Oyegbami, 2009). The Nigerian cattle market generates only 6.8 billion USD of a potential 20 billion USD annually due to local strives and inability of government to fully recognise the industry (Okello et al., 2014).
Past conflicts were solely due to overlap of farmlands with cattle routes, where farmers grow crops on the routes. But recently, this conflict has escalated, taking another dimension of ethnic and religious differences with little effort from government or community leaders aimed at addressing them(Muhammadu et al, 2015). Other researchers (Okoli et al., 2014; Odoh and Chigozie, 2012; Abbass, 2012) relate the causes of conflict to the global climate change and the contending desertification and aridity that has reduced arable and grazing lands, forcing pastoralist to move southwards in search of pasture for their livestock. Climate change-induced rainfall shifting patterns/amount and desertification reduces crop lands, and farmers have to follow these patterns, leading to overlap on grazing lands. The Fulbe herders in Nigeria, for example are faced with rapidly vanishing grass, forcing them to switch from the Bunaji cattle breed, which depends on grass, to the Sokoto Gudali, which readily browses (FAO, 2001).
The Nigerian government has not yet found a means to settle the issue of Fulani herdsmen encroaching on other people’s farmland. This is an issue to look into as fast as possible.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
This research will look into the effect of Fulani herdsmen and the issue of National security. Also, a prompt solution has to be procured to deter the threat of a profession on the lives and farmlands of Nigerians.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This work is designed to provide answers to the following questions:
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