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A HISTORY OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF COCA-COLA BOTTLING COMPANY, IBADAN UP TO 2015)

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[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: A HISTORY OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF COCA-COLA BOTTLING COMPANY, IBADAN UP TO 2015)
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Keywords:A HISTORY OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF COCA-COLA BOTTLING COMPANY, IBADAN UP TO 2015)


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RESEARCH BODY

ABSTRACT

This present study is aimed at examining the history of multinational corporations and development in Nigeria, with a focus on Nigeria Bottling Company, Ibadan and the developmental efforts of the company to its environs over the years. The study was also aimed at identifying the historical and economic impact of NBC to Ibadan.

The first chapter of this study examined a brief history of Nigerian Bottling Company which is the largest bottler of non-beverage in Nigeria.

The second chapter of this study focused on the historical analysis of Multination Corporations. It explained the Roman trade routes, Africa trade routes and the Vikings. The chapter further examined the history of multinational corporations in Nigeria.

The third chapter looked at the historical allusion of Ibadan and the growth of the town over the years. The chapter also looked into the governance system in Ibadan. The fourth chapter examined the history of Nigeria bottling company and its developmental efforts in Ibadan. According to Mr.Ojubanire R. Adedeji, the current production manager, the Nigeria Bottling Company Ltd. founded Ibadan Plant in the year 1961, ten years after the company was incorporated as a franchise bottler of product of Coca-Cola Company, Nigeria. The Coca-Cola company started her operation in Ibadan with Mr.Osunmakinde as the first manager of the company in 1961. Since then, the company have witnessed tremendous growth on all sides and have served the people of Ibadan and its environs effectively for more than 56 years. The Ibadan plant have major distribution outlets in Oyo State, some of which are situated in Ibadan, Shaki, Kishi and Lanlate.

The chapter further examined the developmental efforts of NBC; the social responsibility of NBC, Ibadan and their community development, disaster relief and recovery and the economic impact of NBC in Ibadan.

The concludes that in spite of multinational corporations meager benefits, they  have impacted both positively and negatively on Nigeria economy as a whole. Their impacts cannot however be over-emphasized.

Ibadan and Oyo State at large can only benefit tremendously from the operations of Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Ibadan, if serious considerations are given to the environment in which they operate. Since these Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Ibadan is a vital component of the society, the company must continuously subject itself to the fair requirements of the society, for, their relationship is paramount and reciprocal (the corporation needs the society just as the society needs the corporation).

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Over the years, Multinational corporations (MNCs) have been a source of controversy ever since the East India Company developed the British taste for tea and a Chinese taste for opium.1A typical multinational corporation (MNC) normally functions with a headquarters that is based in one country, while other facilities are based in locations in other countries. In some circles, a multinational corporation is referred to as a multinational enterprise (MNE) or a transnational corporation (TNC).2They enter host countries in different ways and different strategies. Some enter by exporting their products to test the market and to find whether their existing products can gain sizeable market share. For such firms, they rely on export agents. These foreign sales branches or assembly operations are established to save transport costs because there is a limit to what foreign exports can achieve for a firm owing mainly to tariff barriers and quotas and also owing to logistics or cost of transportation. Most of the firms are encouraged by the low wage rates and other environmental factors. To meet the growing demands in the foreign countries, the

  1. Stopford, J. (1998). Multinational corporations, Foreign Policy, Winter 1998 i113 p12(1)
  2. Tatum, M. (2010). “The Activities of Multinational”. Retrieved from: www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-multinational corporation.htm

firm considers other options such as licensing or foreign direct investment which are critical steps. Some continue with export even when they have settled for the foreign direct investment option.

Every step takes strategic planning and is motivated by profit through sales growth. The idea of multinational corporations has been around for centuries but in the second half of the twentieth century multinational corporations have become very important enterprises. Multinationals operate in different structural models.3The first and common model is for the multinational corporation positioning its executive headquarters in one nation, while production facilities are located in one or more other countries. This model often allows the company to take advantage of benefits of incorporating in a given locality, while also being able to produce goods and services in areas where production is lower.4The second structural model is for a multinational corporation to base the parent company in one nation and operate subsidiaries in other countries around the world. With this model, just about all the functions of the parent are based in the country of origin. The subsidiaries more or less function independently, outside of a few basic ties to the parent. A third approach to the setup of anmultinational corporation involves the establishment of

  1. Tatum, M. (2010). “The Activities of Multinational”. Retrieved from: www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-multinational corporation.htm
  2. Ozoigbo,B.I, &Chukuezi,C.O(2011). The Impact of Multinational Corporations on the Nigerian Economy”. European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 19, Number3

a headquarters in one country that oversees a diverse conglomeration that stretches to many different countries and industries 5

With this model, the multinational corporation includes affiliates, subsidiaries and possibly even some facilities that report directly to the headquarters.

Such direct investment means the extension of the managerial control across national boundaries.6

While institutions are important for economic development, particularly in resource rich countries, the interaction between multinational corporations and host country institutions is not well understood.7There is a risk that multinational corporations facilitate patronage problems in resource rich countries, exacerbating the resource curse. Multinational corporations (MNCs) in service industries have given this sector’s large and growing impact on the global economy.8 The Marxists view the emergence of the multinational corporations as a historically progressive aspect of capitalism in the process of developing, at international level. 6,9 In all these views

  1. Robinson, J. (1979 ed.) .The International Division of labour and Multinational Companies, London, Saxon House, Teakfield Ltd, p. 51
  2. Gilpin, M. E. (2001). The Nigerian economy (A selected study). Jos: Macedonia Trust International.
  3. Wiig, A &Kolstad,I. (2010). “Multinational corporations and host country institutions: A case study of CSR activities in Angola”, International Business Review vol. 19 no. 2 pp. 178-190
  4. Goerzen, A. &Makino,S .(2007) – “Multinational corporation internationalization in the service sector: a study of Japanese trading companies”, Journal of International Business Studies (2007) 38, 1149–1169
  5. Stopford, J. (1998). Multinational corporations, Foreign Policy, Winter 1998 i113 p12(1)

both Marxist and non-Marxist, the common basis is productive activity in more than one social formation. Another point to be noted right away is that in a social formation there may be many multinationals with different nationalities and also many corporations of the same nationality.

In a social formation where there are many multinational corporations from different nations, there are higher possibilities of conflicts than where they are mainly from the same country. Activities of the multinational corporations in Nigeria have generated a repulsive reaction from many economic theorists like.10

He went ahead to regard multinational corporations as monsters that have consistently and systematically stultified economic development in various parts of the world.10 The merits of the multinational corporations in Nigeria, the consequences of economic exploitation of multinational corporations in Nigeria and suggested ways for restitution will be discussed in this study while accessing the history of multinational corporations and development in Nigeria.

1.1    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Most of the multinational corporations operate by seeking and securing the opportunity for environment that has least cost of production of goods for world markets. This goal may be achieved through acquiring the most efficient locations for production facilities or obtaining taxation concession from host governments.

  1. Onimode, B. (1982). Imperialism and underdevelopment in Nigeria: the dialectics of mass poverty, London: Zed Press; Westport, Conn., U.S.A.: U.S. distributor, L. Hill, 1982. ii, p. 258

This has been looked upon by many has counterproductive to the host country. Though multinational corporations have contributed in terms of job creation but many of the employees of most Multinational Corporation are poor remunerated.

However, this study is aimed at accessing the history of multinational corporations

and development in Nigeria (A study of Coca-Cola bottling company, Ibadan upto 2015).

1.2    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To access the history of multinational corporation in Nigeria with a focus on Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Ibadan.
  2. To examine the role of multinational corporations towards developmental efforts of Nigeria.
  3. To access the developmental efforts of Coca-Cola Bottling Company to Ibadan and its environs
  4. To identify the factors determining the growth and success of multinational corporations in Nigeria.
  5. To examine the demerits of multinational corporation to their host country.

1.3    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this study will be useful to government of Nigeria and the general public on the role of multinational corporations towards developmental efforts in Nigeria.

This study will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.4    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This research work shall draw heavily from secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, periodicals, articles and newspapers, magazines and from the primary sources such as personal interview to be carried out in Coca-Cola Bottling Company.

Keywords: A HISTORY OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF COCA-COLA BOTTLING COMPANY, IBADAN UP TO 2015)


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Keywords: A HISTORY OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A STUDY OF COCA-COLA BOTTLING COMPANY, IBADAN UP TO 2015)