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Keywords: THE IMPACT OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study was conducted to find out the impact of motivation on the performance of secondary schools teachers. It also investigated the difference in the extent to which public and private secondary schools teachers are motivated to perform their duties in secondary schools in Isu Local Government Area, Edo State. The sample was (100) teachers, five teachers were taken from each of the sampled schools through random sampling technique from (20) secondary schools in Isu Local Government Area. Four hypotheses were formulated for testing. The research instrument was the questionnaire constructed by the researcher, based on the research questions, and validated through expert guidance and pilot testing.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms ‘
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
METHOD AND PROCEDURE
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.3 The Research Instrument
3.4 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
3.5 Date collection procedure
3.6 Date Analysis
4.1 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of date
5.3 Suggestions for further Research
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Secondary schools are established to educate students to enable them contribute to the economic, political and social cultural well, being of their country. In Isu Local Government Area of Imo State, there appears to a hindrance in the realization of objectives of secondary school. An important factor responsible for the non-attainment of the overall purpose of secondary school is due to inadequate motivation of staff.
Secondary schools teachers are different in sex and status. However sufficient efforts are not made by the Government, proprietors and some parents to motivate the secondary schools teachers in Isu Local Government Area to teach the students.
Bulya (1992) assents that:- The Government is not left out in making the teachers feel inferior.
One of this is economic depression; the first group to bear the brunt is teacher. I for see the year 200AD as the year teacher will go home with no pay if the economy continues to deteriorate as if there is no charge of altitude on the part of administrations of teachers welfare. In the 1989 Budget, the Government had decreed that car refurbishing loan be given to desiring officers. Deserving education officers teaching in secondary schools also filled from but non-benefited from the loan. This game added to the teachers frustration. Thus, the Nigeria teachers continue to render essential service to the nation without adequate compensation by the Government.
Thus, there is need to motivate teachers in Isu Local Government Area to enable them teach their students very well. The teachers should be paid their salaries on time, the parents of students should not sunb teachers and the government should give car loans to the teachers, entertainment allowance and meal subsidy’s
Furthermore, Bulya (1992) observes that the delay is the payment of teacher’s salaries is responsible for the poor image of the teacher. He added that in 1993, primary school teacher’s salaries were delayed in Gongola State for months old industrial action. In the same year teachers in Bauchi Local Government Area appealed to the State Government to do everything possible to ensure that they were paid arrears of their two months salaries.
The non-payment of secondary schools teacher’s salaries on time makes it difficult for them to meet their family financial obligations at home.
Some of the teacher’s dress shabbily, some feel shy to introduce themselves as teachers while some families are no longer proud of their members taking up the teaching profession. They see it as the last resort.
Hence, teachers need to be motivated by the government, proprietors, all and sundary to enable them perform in the secondary schools.
No wonder Okon and Anderson (1982) argued that since money provided power for it’s possessor, it has a double effect in lending status. Money permits a person of wealth to exhibit a life style, which others may enjoy. The person who is envied has a higher status than the person who is pitied wealth can be obtained through salaries earnings so give the teachers their due that they may live and be envied by others.
Since teacher are very important in our secondary schools because they teach the students, there is need to motivate the teachers to enable them perform in teaching student in secondary school in Isu Local Government Area, Benin City.
Bolarinwa (1996) shows that academic performance of students in our schools is deters rating compared to the olden days because of the teacher. He added that those responsible for this kind of change are the teachers and one of the reasons behind this could be the status of the profession in Nigeria now.
He added that many people see teaching as a job that could be done when there is no other choice. There is no adequate encouragement for teachers who are in a position of steering the wheel of education of learners. Teacher’s salary package is the least in the society compared to other profession, some administrators do not seen teaching as some thing government should spend so much on, they see it as a profession that gulp so much money and nothing to show for it.
Thus, most local government chairpersons pay more attention on award of contracts to their own benefits. Since they do not care on how good contract is carried out, loss attention is paid to teacher’s welfare, salaries are paid when the chairperson likes. Money allocated by federal government to local government on primary education were diverted and used on different projects. Those eventually created a change in the quality of classroom instructions and the out put, since teacher’s salary were not paid for months.
Ogonor (2003) stated that: The Nigerian educational system
has suffered government. In the period of financial constraint, the educational system bears the brunt at certain periods teachers salaries were unpaid for a period of about a few months. In situations as stated teachers freely engaged in other activities unchecked while school was in session because there was no moral justification to call the neglected and hungry teachers to order.
Ogonor (2003) added that apart from irregular payment of teacher’s salaries many teachers have never had the opportunity or being sent on in-service training to up date their learning in competence for an up ward period of about ten years. Hence many teachers are enabling to respond to current changes in curriculum and pedagogy.
In Nigeria, like in most developing countries the teachers are very important. This is mainly because of the role they play in educating the students and in the political, social. Educational and economic development of the country, In addition to it’s traditional role of educating the student, it not only accounts for about 50% of Nigerian work force but also serves as instrument for development.
Regrettably however, while the teachers continues to increase in size and importance, it’s effectiveness and efficiencies have been on a serious decline due to lack of motivation. Since the early-eighties, teachers commitment performance and productivity are on the decline while various reports of tribunals and commissions of inquiry point to the fact that most public sectors organizations in Nigeria are characterized by inefficiency, mis-management , corruption, wastage and abuse of office e.t.c federal republic of Nigeria, reports (1967) and Kano State reports (1975). The aforementioned concern is further heightened taking into cognizance the fact that if teachers are poorly motivate, then they will not do their best possible in teaching the students in secondary school in Isu Local Government Area. In the same heir, the academic performance of students will be affected in terms of poor performance in internal and external examinations as a result of their inability to complete their scheme of work due to industrial actions, work to rule or engaging in other business because they were not paid their monthly salaries for several months.
Ogonor (2003) Stated that the Nigerian educational system has suffered great neglect during the are of successive government. In the period of financial constraints the educational system bears the brunt. At certain periods teachers salaries were unpaid for a period of about a few months. In situations as stated teachers freely engaged in other activities unchecked while schools were in session because there was no moral justification to call the neglected and hungry teachers to order. She added that apart from irregular payment of teachers salaries many teachers have never had the opportunity of being sent on in service training to up date their learning in competences for an up ward period of about ten years. Hence many teachers are unable to respond to current changes in curriculum and pedagogy.
Thus, in Nigerian, like most developing countries, the teachers are very important. This is mainly because of the role they play in educating the students and in the political, social, educational and economic development of the country. In additional to it’s traditional role of educating the student it not only account for about 50% of Nigeria work force but also serves as instrument for development. Regrettably however, while the teachers continue to increase in size and importance, its effectiveness and efficiency have been on a serious decline due to back of motivation. Since the early-eighties, teachers commitment, performance, and productivity are on the decline- while various reports of tribunals and commission of inquiry point to the fact most public sector organization in Nigeria are characterized by inefficiency mismanagement, corruption, wastage and abuse of office e.t.c.
(federal Republic of Nigeria Reports 1067) and Kano State Reports (1975). Garba (2001) asserted that the use of Incentive to motivate an employee Is however, by no means recent but has acquired more popularity in recent times. The parameters of incentives employed by organization include use of money provision of amenities and fringe benefits, Involvement in decision making use of such factors as job security and promotion. Further more, motivation has an impact the performance of secondary school teachers. They can be motivated in different ways depending on the ways employed by the government and school administrators.
Musa (1997) Stated that the delay in the payment of salaries of teachers and other Fringe benefits are sufficient evidence for this non-challant attitude to teachers Welfare.
He added that the non payment of teacher’s salaries has far reacting consequences on our educational system and its products. Outstanding among these consequences is the falling standard of education. When teachers go on strike the effect is not fact immediately, so the government does not car, the parents do not care and the children rejoice that they are idle and free. The effects are however felt later. Kayode (1996) stated that ironically, even on occasions when the economy is buoyant one still discovers that teachers continue to constitute the least paid workers- beast of burden, Invariably, therefore, teachers are unwillingly to teach or remain in the profession due to lack of motivation, sheer want of devotion, commitment and lack of appreciation of their worth by the society. The situation was not different in Imo State in 1982, 1999 and 2002. The result was that some teachers in secondary schools in Isu Local Government took up menial jobs as financial coping techniques, withdrew their children from foe paying schools to non-fee paying owns while others wish they could opt for other jobs. Hence it becomes clear that there is low percentage of teachers who could be said to be actually teaching effectively at any given time. Hence Kayode (1996) remarked that if you feed teachers with peanuts, you should expect nothing but monkeys.
In this regard, the researcher would therefore attempt to determine the impact of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government Area, Imo State
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
For an effective and functional secondary educational to be achieved therefore, the need to take cognizance of the performance of the imputs (teachers in this context) is very essential. However, in view of the unhealthy government, private proprietors and school administrators attitude towards making much impact to motivate teachers to perform in secondary schools, it could be rightly asserted that delay in payment of teachers salaries, poor condition of work, lack of job security, non payment of entertainment allowance and meal subsidy, grant of car loans among others are responsible for the lack of motivation of teachers.
Angulu one time Registrar of Ahmadu Bello University, Speaking at the graduation ceremony of ATC/ABU, Kano 1981/82 session: he said: “The teaching profession in Nigeria has lost its glamour, social status and respect due to lack of incentive for the teachers” Thus, the teaching profession has never been a lucrative one since the teachers neither had the social status nor the money. Hence the poor treatment given to teachers in the society ha caused immense concern to parents, ministry of education and the society at large. The researcher therefore wishes to examine the impact of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government Area, Imo State. The following questions are to be investigated.
- Are the secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government area motivated to perform their jobs according to the standard set by the Government?
- To what extent do the government and private proprietors motivate the teachers to do their jobs?
- To what extent does the school management motivate the staff to do their jobs?
- Is there any difference in the factors motivating the staff job performance between male and female teachers?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The secondary school teachers are not effectively motivated to enable them do their best possible in teaching students in secondary schools, in Isu Local Government Area, Imo State. Bulya (1992) Stated that the secondary schools teacher did not fair better. Many of them went without salaries for months. This non-payment dented the image of the teaching profession in no small measure. Teachers became borrowers and debtors. Some took to secondary jobs that were very mean like motor cycle hiring services while many others went into petty trading hawking and peasant farming. Virtually there were no difference between the teacher and a peasant illiterate. The aforementioned situation was the case in Bendel State in 1982, 1989 and in Imo State in 2003. Thus, Kayode (1996) in his study observed that:
The government at various levels and time pretend not to know the Priority of the people they government else how would Local Government Chairman prefer award of contracts for office and road renovation to ensuring that primary schools are properly equipped and teachers salaries are promptly paid. No serious attention is paid to enhance the status of teachers, even projects and activities.
However, teachers are not will motivated to enable them improve on their performance in teaching the students in secondary schools.
The purpose of this study, therefore was to find out the impact of motivation of teachers performance in secondary schools. Specifically the study, attempts to find out if the secondary school teachers are motivated to do their jobs according to the standard set by the Government, the extent to which the teachers are motivated by the Government/proprietors, the extent to which the school management motivate the staff to do their jobs and if there is a significant difference in the motivation of male and female in the performance of their jobs.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to secondary school teachers, principals, Heads of Departments, Government, Policy makers, supervisors , Curriculum planners and tertiary institutions. In the same view it will be of great help to various States Federal Government and school proprietors so as to improve on their various ways of motivating the teachers to enable them do their best possible.
For the purpose of this study the following assumptions have been made. It is envisaged that every secondary schools in all the sampled schools are of the same setting and standard. The teachers and students of the sampled schools are competent enough to give reliable in formation on the impact of motivation on teachers performance in secondary schools
In an attempt to carry out the research work, the following research statements are formulated to guide the researcher in the study.
- The secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government Area are not motivated to perform their work according to the standard set by the Government.
- To what extent does the Government and private proprietors motivate the teachers to perform their duties?
- To what extent does the school management motivate the teachers to perform their duties?
- There is no difference in the factors motivating the staff job performance between male and female teachers.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covered twenty schools in Isu Local Government Area, Imo State. The school were selected through random sampling technique in order to examine the impact of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in Isu Local Government Area of Imo State. If the teachers in Isu Local Government Area are motivated to perform their duties, the extent to which the Government and private proprietors motivate their staff to perform their duties. The study also covered extent to which school management motivate the staff and if there is any difference in the factors motivating male and female teachers in the performance of their jobs.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Motivation – I t is the act of encouraging people to do something or act in a particular way by giving them gifts, incentives or rewards. In this context it refers to giving teachers gifts, promotions and allowing them to participate in the administration of the school.
- Impact – I means to give a quality to something.
- Performance – It is the process or manna of performing duties, outstanding action or achievement.
- Secondary schools – It refers to institutions for educating children.
- Teachers – It refers to people who teach especially in a school.
Keywords: THE IMPACT OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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