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Keywords:THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEPRECIATION ON THE PROFITABILITY OF A COMPANY
The main purpose of this study is to measure the impact of different methods on the profitability of accompany the differ methods of providing for depreciation has been posing a problem to many people because the understanding and the use of these methods provide varying depreciation expenses on the sane fixed asset in viler of these when profit is reported using deferred methods part the service potential of a depreciable asset is exhausted in the cost revenue generating process each period the cost of these services meets be deducted from revenue of the period in order to measure the periodic income the expired cost must be recovered before a business is considered as well as at the beginning of the period and troublesome area in accounting.Deprecation was actually a cost of doing business executive tended to view depreciation as a matter of setting aside speciation during prosperous period for the replacement of depreciation assets.Chapter one we examined the need for the study, finding out what impact depreciation on the company’s profitability and tax. It also looked into the significance of the study that is building funds for the study of their asset at the end of the existing asset useful life. The scope was ANAMMCO, Niger gas limited and premier Breweries Plc.Chapter two examined and reviewed the causes of depreciation that can be physical deterioration from wear and tear, the different method of calculating depreciation. Like straight-line method, revaluation methods etc. its impact on income statement and the evaluation of depreciable methods.Chapter three dealt with research design and methodology.Chapter four discussed the presentation analysis and interpretation of data the different method of depreciation and tested the hypothesis stated in chapter one.Chapter five was the findings, recommendations and the conclusion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
DEFINITION OF TERMS
THE NATURE OF THE DEPRECIATION
CAUSES OF DEPRECIATION
METHODS OF CALCULATING DEPRECIATION
THE IMPACT OF DEPRECIATION ON INCOME STATEMENT
EVALUATION OF DEPRECIATION METHODS
THE CONCEPT OF PROFIT
DEFINITION OF PROFIT
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BALANCE SHEET,PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT
DEPRECIATION METHOD AND MANAGEMENT DECISION
DECLINING PRODUCTIVITY CONTROVERSY
IMPACT OF INFLATION
COST OF A PLANT ASSET
ESTIMATED LIFE OF A FIXED ASSET
TERMINAL VALUE OF A FIXED ASSET
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION AND PROCEDURES
SOURCES OF DATA
THE SAMPLE SIZE CALCULATION AND SELECTION
VALIDITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE
QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION AND COLLECTION
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
BASES OF COMPUTATION USING THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEPRECIATION
FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
This project work is aimed at critically studying the different methods of depreciation and their impact in the profitability of business enterprises.
The different methods of providing for depreciation have been posing problem to many individual because the understanding and the use of these methods provide varying depreciation expenses on the same fixed asset. In view of this, when profit is reported using different methods for a period, the reported income will vary under the different methods.
Although most of the different methods of providing for depreciation will be discussed in this work.
Parts of the service potential of a depreciable asset is exhausted in the revenue generating process each period the cost these services must be deducted from revenue of that period. In order to measure the periodic income, the expired cost must be recovered before a business is considered. Depreciation is one of the most controversial and troublesome areas in accounting.
Depreciation was actually a cost of doing business. Business executive tended to view depreciation as a matter of setting aside something during prosperous periods for the replacement of depreciable assets. When earnings are high, large amounts of depreciation might be recorded and when earnings were low or less provision for depreciation was recorded. Today, it is universally agreed that depreciation is an expenses that must be recorded whether or not revenue is sufficient to absorb it.
Depreciation has been given different interpretations and meanings by various authors and experts in the accounting field as a result many definitions of depreciation exist as many as the authors and experts themselves.
Some of the numerous definitions of the term depreciation as defined by many authors will be examined.
The institute of chartered accountant of Canada defined depreciation as a proportionate charge of an expanse to an accounting period based the cost as other recorded value of fixed assets. Himmed Clan (third international congress on accounting defined depreciation as the price spreading the value of a fixed asset.
Montgomery (auditing theory and practice) defined depreciation as an allocation of the entire cost of depreciable assets to the operating express of a series of fiscal period.
The American Institute of Certified public Accountants defined depreciation accounting as a system of accounting which aims to distribute the cost or other basic value (if any) over the estimated useful life of the unit which may be a group of assets in a systematic and rational manner.
Depreciation is a part of the cost of a fixed asset is not recoverable on disposal and is this part of the cost of fixed assets consumed during its period of use by the firm. It is an expense, which is charged to the profit and loss account of a period before ascertaining the real net profit or loss of an enterprise.
Depreciation is sometimes divided into two classes:
Internal depreciation which arises from the operation of any cause natural to or inherent in the asset itself for instance, wear and tear of plant and machinery.
External depreciation which arises from the operation of forces apart from the assets itself for instance obsolescence, inadequacy and decay.
Depreciation according Walter Mergs is that portion of the cost of fixed assets that is deductible from revenue for the asset services used in the operations of the business. In practice, the term depreciation is used to describe the cost of the expired services of tangible fixed assets.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
Most people are not aware of the resultant effect of adopting one depreciation method or another on the reported profits and in the net book value of assets stated in the financial statement of a business concern and so they tend to pass erroneous judgment on the profitability or performance comparison between companies by mere looking at either reported profit in the financial statement. It is therefore imperative that research be conducted to find the following problems:
1. How to determine the probable use life of an asset.
2. How to estimate the depreciation amount to be charged over its useful life.
3. What is appropriate depreciation method to be used?
4. Whether the use of varied depreciation methods by concerns of assets stated in the balance sheet at the year-end.
5. Whether the amount carried in the account of property plant and equipment and hence the depreciation charges should be reviewed periodically in the line with inflation. These are burning problems, which the researcher would find arises to.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
The general objectives of the work is assess the impact of different methods of depreciation on the profitability of a company.
The specific objective includes the following:
1. To find out what influences company’s chance of depreciation methods.
2. To find out what impact depreciation has on the company’s profitability and tax.
3. To find out other significance depreciation has on the company’s financial statement.
4. To ascertain whether proper treatment is given to depreciation accounting by the companies studied.
5. To look into the records kept in respect of plant machinery and equipment in order to secure effective control over them through proper accounting.
6. Make recommendations based on finding thereof.
1.4 HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION
For the purpose of the following hypothesis will test on generalization of the impact of different methods of depreciation on the profitability of a company.
Hi The different methods of depreciation do not have an impact on the profitability of a company.
Ho The different methods of depreciation have an impact on the profitability of a company.
Hi Depreciation does not have any effect on management decisions.
Ho Depreciation has an effect on management decisions.
1.5 THE SIGNIFICATION OF STUDY.
1. This project will be useful to many companies in Nigeria in that it many companies in Nigeria in that it will provide an in sign into the effect of depreciation in income statement.
2. It enables the determine the extent to which depreciation could help to
3. Build funds for the replacement of their asset at the end of the existing asset useful life.
B Reduce tax payable to the government by reducing the company’s profit.
2 The study will also prove useful to the shareholder in that depreciation reduces the declared profit a nd the amount payable as dividend to shareholders. It has the advantage of not affecting the company’s working capital as other expense do.
3 Both the federal and state government will benefit from this study since depreciation determines the volume of the company’s profit and the amount of tax payable to the government.
The study will also portray the reason. Why our also tax law disallow depreciation, but instead provide capital allowance for the purpose of computing income tax.
4 The study will hopefully be useful to other researchers, in that it will add to the existing literature in the subject.
5 Finally the project will be useful to the researcher, in that it is presented in partial fulfillment for the award of diploma in accountancy.
1.6 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project covers the impact of different method of depreciation on profitability of a company. It includes the impact of depreciation accounting on income statement reporting in perspective. An overall evaluation of the depreciation policy and concepts of profit are included. The study area include the following selected companies:
1. Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company (ANAMMCO)
2. Niger Gas Limited Emene.
3. Premier Breweries Ply Onitsha.
The scope of this study is limited to the above areas mentioned for the purpose of effective coverage.
Keywords: THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEPRECIATION ON THE PROFITABILITY OF A COMPANY
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