This study,INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES IN THE NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
University worldwide is regarded as the citadel of knowledge, the fountain of intellectualism the most appropriate ground for the incubation of leaders of tomorrow. According to Ike (1999:1) a university fulfills, one major function it is a knowledge and value provider it stand or fails in its ability or inability to deliver on this criteria. According to magna carta universitatum, “the university is an autonomous institution at the heart of societies differently organized because of geographically and historical heritage; it produces, examines, appraises and hands down culture by research and is an enterprise that serves multi disciplinary purposes. This according to Nwankwo (2000:25) explains why merit has been the watchword in the university system – a system a student must first be certified worthy in character and learning before being admitted into the Honours Degree Hall. Universities are key author in national development, more so in Africa than in other regions. Their roles in research and this explains why the Federal Government of Nigeria is acknowledging the university as a fulcrum for national development, set up a commission headed by Chief Gray Longe 1992 to review higher education in Nigeria with particular reference to universities in Nigeria. The commission was given terms of reference amongst which were;
The commission held special sessions with a number of eminent personalities and educationist from whose knowledge and experience of the educational system in Nigeria it benefited immensely.
Finally, the commission defined higher education as the type of education in higher educational institution especially in universities (conventional and specialized), which produce high level and middle level manpower, but not specialized set up by professional bodies.
The commission also noted that the goals and objectives among others include; teaching, research and public service. The commission observed that Nigeria universities had established standard comparable to the best in other parts of the world. The commission, however, frowned at the discovery that the following physical conditions are still the trade – marks of the Nigerian universities;
The commission was also appalled by the fact that universities have not achieved much in terms of the goals and objectives for which they were set up, owing to incessant disruption in the academic flow chart caused by strike actions, industrial unrest, students hooliganism, political instability etc.
Based on these discoveries, the commission recommended among others, that;
The government on its part accepted these recommendations and thus, commented as follows:
This is however, the general picture of the events that surrounds the university system in Nigeria. We shall examine at the appropriate chapters of this work how far these major actors in industrial disputes have discharge their respective obligations in order to reduce the rate of industrial disputes in the Nigeria universities.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the last thirty years in Nigeria, the educational system has witnessed an unprecedented industrial unrest and so many official assaults than other social institution. According to Onuoha (2001:8), this is so perhaps, because of its strategic place both in the nation’s hierarchy of priorities and its considered role as a veritable machine for development. In his own contribution, Nwankwo (2000:37) opined that Nigeria educational institutions, characterized by military intervention in governance have witnessed untold negative political interference and a seeming calculated moves to submerge it in the river of irrelevances. He further argued that those in authorities see universities as a burden and as institutions to be exploited and left desolate. Consequent upon this ures, non-payment development, our universities he posited, have become aberrations of themselves. The manifestation are in form of cultism, brain drain, under funding by government, erosion of academic freedom, general insecurity, dilapidated he structures, non-payment of university staff salaries. These are indications that all is not well with the Nigeria university system.
ASUU went on strike on 27th June, 2009 in protest against non implementation of agreement against signed with the federal government of Nigeria.
In a press briefing on 30th August in Calabar, ASUU president, Prof. Ukachukwu Awuzie accused the Minister of Education of not presenting the true facts concerning government’s handling of the issues that led to the strike. He expressed regret that the minister claimed in his reaction to the strike, that there was no agreement between the federal government and the union (ASUU) and that the government needed to review the agreement because of the global economic meltdown. He said the minister also claimed that government was not properly briefed during the negotiations and that the strike action by ASUU would further reduce the quality of education, which the union claimed that it was fighting to improve.
Awuzie described the minister’s remarks as “particularly vexatious and unfortunate” as the federal government was responsible for the strike action, which has thrown the university system into another turmoil. He said contrary to the minister’s assertion, there was an agreement reached between the federal government and the union (ASUU). On May 12, 20009 and government invitation, they assembled at the NUC to sign the agreement between the federal government of Nigeria (FGN) and ASUU. He said the union is on strike “to persuade government to be serious for once and take the interest of its citizens seriously by signing the agreement already reached.” According to him, the much touted sum of N78 billion is actually the shortfall in the amount needed to fund personnel emoluments arising from the various agreements which government has reached with hall federal tertiary institution in the country.
He said it was therefore not true that N78 billion was needed to fund the FGN/ASUU agreement as claimed by the minister. “It was an assertion meant to politicize the issues, deceive and hoodwink the Nigerian people. By the way, is it not a crying shame that our government finds the same N78 billion too much to spend over a period of time to revamp t the educational system? Yet, the same government wastes millions of Naira on frivolities”, he said.
He added that even though the present government touts education as one of the issues in the seen-point agenda, the allocation to education in the 2009 budget betrayed its lack commitment to the education of Nigerians. The ASUU president further argued, “ASUU believes that with an average of N120 billion earned from oil each day, government should be able to fund education effectively. If it considers this impossible, the money should be enough to increase access to education by a greater majority of our people. We cannot aspire to being one of the developed economies by 2020, if the bulk of our citizenry remain uneducated as is the case today.” He however, assured that the union will call off the strike as soon as the federal government signs the agreement reached with the lecturers. ASUU strike ended on October 22nd, 2009 by 8:10pm.
The incessant strikes closures and boycotts of lectures on work by academic and non- academic staff in our universities are also evidences that there is strained industrial relations in the Nigerian university system.
In the light of the above facts, the management of these universities has been confronted with the following problems.
The sources of discontent in our university system are in exhaustive. According to Akpala (1982:56) it has bearing with present economic situation in the country, our political history and inheritances authoritarian attitudes of both the government and university. Management towards labour issues, the presence of obsolete labour laws, corruption in all segments of the society, mal administration, class conflict and struggle, struggle for survival etc. Also in the list of the problems is the inability of the Nigerian universities to actualize the objectives for which they were established, such as a training of high caliber manpower etc. it was on the basis of the above problems that the researcher was motivated to conduct this research work to find out the true position of things in the Nigerian University system and to state the facts as they are without any bias and to proffer some solutions.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study had the following objectives:
This research work will enable the researcher to come up with answers to the following research questions namely:
What are the likely causes of industrial disputes in the Nigerian university system?
What are the ways of ensuring industrial harmony in the future?
What are the consequences / implications of industrial unrest in the Nigerian university system?
What are the factors that militate against worker’s participation in decision making?
What are the strategies used by:
The university management
The worker’s union (trade union)
The government in settling industrial disputes in the Nigerian university system?
How often does a trade dispute arise in the Nigerian university system?
How can industrial disputes be managed?
FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESES
The following hypothesis related to the study:
H0: There is no difference I the proportion of staff of ESUT and UNN who are of the opinion that industrial crisis is independent of university management.
H1: There is difference in the proportion of staff of ESUT and UNN who are of the opinion that industrial crisis is independence of university management.
H0: There is no difference in the proportion of the staff of both ESUT and UNN who are of the opinion that industrial disputes in the Nigerian university system are dependent on management indifference to union needs.
H1: There is difference in the proportion of the staff of both ESUT and UNN who is of the opinion that industrial disputes in the Nigerian university system are not dependent on management indifference to union needs.
H0: There is no difference in the proportion of staff of ESUT and UNN who are of the opinion that trade unions contribute to industrial disputes.
H1: There is difference in the proportion of staff of ESUT and UNN who are of the opinion that trade unions contribute to industrial disputes.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
A study on industrial relations would not only be beneficial to the state, employers of labour and employees but to the society as a whole. Labour issues have bearing with integrated national planning. It contributes to manpower development and harmonized industrial relations, which promotes rapid economic development. Besides, a peaceful industrial atmosphere is required to actualize the noble objectives for which universities were set or established to achieve.
The research work is significant in a number of ways, which include:
Democracy promoter’s freedom and guarantees conducive atmosphere for expression of feelings. But such rights should not be abused or suppressed into witch hunting for selfish interests. We must demand for what is right so long as it is within the labour laws and what is right so long as it is within the labour laws and what is right must be done so long as it within the labour laws and what is right must be done so long as it is within the state resources. This research work will also be beneficial to the researcher as it is a requirement for award at a higher degree to the researcher.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is the research boundary. This research focuses on industrial disputes in the Nigerian university system. Emphasis is laid on the management of industrial disputes with a view to identifying the causes, the dimension and socio-economic implications of industrial disputes in our society.
The scope also revolves on the machinery of reaching collective bargain and identification of parties and their objectives as it relates to tripartism in labour relations.
The scope of the study will be limited to universities in Enugu state. The research work will pay attention to Enugu state university of Science and Technology (ESUT) and university of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN).
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Hardly would a research study be concluded without constraints. In a country such as ours where bureaucracy in the flow of information and where there is inaccurate data and statistics, there really has to be a problem. Specific instances of constraints related to the data system would include:
Researcher from carrying out an in-depth research work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Bouycott – This means refusal of wage earners to have dealing with or to Patronize, a business organization when there is an organized labour grievance.
Collective Bargaining – This simply means all methods by which groups of workers and relevant employers come together to attempt to
Employee/worker – This is any person who is not a manager and who works for another in any organization for fixed wages.
Employer – This means the owner(s) of work. This can be business owners, organization, partnership, sole proprietorship, private or public limited company, government etc.
Industrial Relations: A tripartite relationship involving three parties namely, the owners of work, the employees or their representatives and government agency for the purpose of setting job rules and regulations.
Industrial Disputes: – When there is inability among the participating parties in industrial relations to reach peaceful agreements as it affects job rules and conditions of work generally.
Lock-out: – This is the employer’s action of closing a business enterprise for the purpose of enforcing a demand on the employees by causing them to be thrown out of work.
Picketing:- This means the action of striking workers to prevent other persons from taking their places in the plant or establishment and induce their colleagues who have not joined the strike action to do so.
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