This study, INFLUENCE OF UNEMPLOYEMENT ON THE INCREASE RATE OF VIOLENCE AMONG YOUTH contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.1.1 CONCEPT OF UNEMPLOYMENT
2.1.2 UNEMPLOYMENT AND VIOLENCE
2.1.3 CONCEPT OF VIOLENCE
2.1.4 FACTORS THAT INCREASE VIOLENCE RATE IN NIGERIA
2.1.5 NIGERIA’S UNEMPLOYMENT AND CRIMES
2.1.6 CAUSES OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
2.1.7 NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF VIOLENT CRIMES ON BUSINESS INVESTMENT
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.2.1 DEPRIVATION THEORY OF TED GURR
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.5 SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Unemployment anywhere is a threat to peace and prosperity everywhere. Unemployment has been a major problem in most countries in the world. Nigeria, as a developing country is witnessing high rate of graduate unemployment which has become one of the major threats to its national security. Unemployment is largely blamed for the intractable security challenges in Nigeria. Unemployment is seen as the situation whereby a number of people who are mentally and physically fit and willing to work under the prevailing condition of service but could not find a paid job. These persons are actively looking for paid employment without success under the prevailing economic condition. In a related development, Gbosi (2006) sees unemployment as a situation in which people who are willing to work at the prevailing wage rate are unable to find jobs. An unemployed person is a person that is qualified for job (whether the job is physical or mental) and willing to work at the current rate of wages but does not find job. Graduate refer to individuals with any form of post matriculation qualification or tertiary diploma or certificate (Pauw, Oosthuizen and Van Der Westhuizen 2008) in Bassey and Atan (2012). Therefore, graduate unemployment can be seen as a situation whereby individuals with any form of post matriculation qualification or tertiary diploma or certificate qualified for the job physically and mentally and willing to work at rate of wages and other conditions of service but could not find a job. According to the National Bureau of Statistics (2009), the labour force of a country is a set of people or citizens who are willing and are able to make available at any given point in time their efforts for gainful employment, while the unemployed are the individuals with no work, but are looking for work at the time of any study.
Graduate unemployment according to Salihu, Muhammed &Bayero (2016) is a global phenomenon whereby eligible workforce of the state is deprived in the service to the country. The only difference lies in the magnitude and the rate of unemployment which is unevenly distributed among countries. This is not only a serious economic issue but also has implications that affect almost all countries (Nigeria inclusive) and all people either directly or indirectly. Unemployment (especially that of Graduates) causes social disquiet and increase in crimes, continuing youth unrest and unstable socio-economic structure. According to Ajufo (2013), youth unemployment has national and global impacts, notably among which are increased violence crime, drug abuse and political instability. There is also the increase in systematic crimes using Information and Communication Technology (I.C.T). Most of those who engaged themselves in these forms of sophisticated crimes have some sort of formal education and training and since government is unable to judiciously utilize their talents, they look for ways to illegally use these talents. Desperation according to Ajufo (2013) can drive many people into living outside the law in order to survive and as a means of expressing dissatisfaction at the apparent neglect of their very existence. The issue of graduate unemployment according to Ajayi, Adeniji&Adu (2008) has caught the attention of policymakers, parents, educationists as well as media commentators. In fact, the situation is almost certainly worse than expected as over 2.5 millions graduates from the nation’s Tertiary Educational Institutions are presently roaming about the streets looking for unavailable employment.
In recent times, there have been notable poor social, economic and political developments in Nigeria, consequence of youth unemployment and underemployment, militancy, particularly exemplified by increasing violent crimes, kidnapping, restiveness and political instability. The Nigerian situation is further compounded by dwindling oil price at the international market as a result of slow in economic and productive activities across the globe that has crippled businesses and the project of securing jobs for young people (Fanimo and Olayinka, 2009). Adejumo and Tayo-olajubulu (2009) contended that unemployment has been identified as one of the major causes of social vices including armed robbery, destitution, prostitution, political thuggery, kidnapping, hostage-taking, militancy and many more.
Similarly, Adawo and Atan (2013) state that one of the things that accounts for high level of graduate unemployment in Nigeria is the low quality of the graduates themselves. Other factors they opine include poor funding of universities, non up-to-date and functional libraries, no functional laboratories, poor and inadequate learning space, very poor working environment for staff, admission overload, incessant strikes, lack of motivation for staff, corruption, cultism, exchange of gifts and money between student and teacher called “sorting” for examination grades, inadequate staffing, lack of electricity that renders learning environment too hot for such exercise and also the hatred students have developed against reading. In a related development, Bassey and Atan (2012:67-76) in Salihu, Muhammed &Bayero (2016) observe that within the Nigerian Labour Market distortion are prevalent. This they stress accounts in part for graduate unemployment. According to them, this reflects in the rising incidence of unemployment among university graduates and those of other tertiary institutions, particularly wage rate differential not related to productivity and universities teaching curricula that are not closely linked to the demand of employers.
In a related development, Agi and Arikawei (2011) state that over 200,000 graduates are produced each year, only 25% are absorbed in the labour market. The remaining 75% are left in the labour market perpetually looking for jobs. Hence, this alarming rate of youth unemployment tell on the level of insecurity in the country whereby youths are involved in terrorism, kidnapping, armed robbery, theft etc. Youth unemployment is no doubt one of the biggest problems in Nigeria threatening its national security, considering the inability of the government to adequately engage the teeming youth productively. Unemployment is the greatest challenge to underdeveloped and developing countries (Nigeria inclusive). The phenomenon of graduate unemployment (GU) as it is being experienced in the developing countries constitutes a peculiar problem to labor market and the general economy of these countries (Tunde, 2011). It is worthy of note here that Nigerian government and of course any other government cannot singlehandedly provide the needed employment for its teeming job seekers.
On the other hand, national security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economy, diplomacy, power projection, and political power. Security threats can come in any form. The present security threat in Nigeria is that the Boko-Haram terrorist attacks on the government and the country at large. The upcoming threat to its national security is the issue of youth graduate unemployment which demands attention from the government. It is a fact that majority of Nigerian youths are unemployed; while the few ones in employment are confronted with so much socio-economic pressure from hordes of dependents. Political violence, social insecurity and sundry crimes in most countries are traceable to high rates of unemployment among youths who constitute the able-bodied and economically-active groups in the civic population. The researchers can infer that, the increasing spate of sectarian insurrection, crimes and terrorism, which Nigeria has been experiencing in the past few years in Nigeria, may not be unconnected with the alarming rate of graduate unemployment. It is against this background that this study examines the effects of graduate unemployment on Nigeria’s national security.
Gender-disaggregated data on youth unemployment in developing countries are limited, despite female youth unemployment rates often exceeding those of males. Gender differentials in youth unemployment rates are small at the global level and in most regions, but very high in the Middle East and North Africa. The gap in the male and female employment-to-population ratio (the share of the working-age population that is employed) in South Asia is even higher, reaching 29.6 percentage points in 2014. Women are also more likely than men to be employed in the informal sector, and in low-paid work: 86– 88 percent of women in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa were self- employed. Factors restricting employment opportunities for young women include household responsibilities, lack of access to education and health services, child marriage, social norms and lack of public safety.
The major problem identified in this study is that, majority of the self-employed youths in the country have find it difficult to survive in their business operation due to; political instability in the country, high level of corruption, poverty, poor governance, increasing population without adequate policy initiatives among others. These factors have contributed enormously towards high increase towards crime wave in our country (Okafor, 2011; Ekott, 2010). Owing to the above reason, the state of the economy of the nation has been affected on two distinct ways. Firstly, Gross Domestic Product (DGP) per person is adversely affected due to non-contribution of the teeming unemployed graduates and non-graduates. Secondly, the state of the economy is also affected due to high rate of violent crimes resulting from; kidnapping, armed robbery among others which has negative effect on investment. The implication is that, foreign investors will be discouraged from coming into the country to make investment because they do not have confidence that the return of their investment will be realized. It is strongly perceived that youth unemployment has given rise to different forms of criminality which has badly affected the economy of the nation. Local businesses have in the wake of violent crime committed by the unemployed youth, resorted to hiring of armed guards for the security of their lives and property thereby incurring extra costs in the running of the business. Some who were unfortunate to have been victims of kidnapping pays huge ransom to secure their release. Unemployment is a social as well as economic issues which every nation deals with regularly but differently. In fact, the classical economists averred that there can never be a situation of total employment in any economy (Ogunyomi&Oginni, 2013). However, situation in Nigeria has assumed an unimaginable proportion. Statistics shows that almost 75% of those who are able and willing to work, cannot find gainful employment especially among the graduates/ school leavers. The situation has become very bad and appears to have defied any remedy.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The rise in violent crimes (robbery, kidnapping, thuggery, terrorism) committed by youths is a sign of „gap‟ in the society. The society already has expectations for individuals and established means of achieving them. When the means are limited as the youth unemployment is 46.5% in 2011, people are forced to achieve the goals through illegal means to fulfil societal expectations. Kidnappings are on the increase across Nigeria and the unemployed youths view the business lucrative. They are available for recruitment by politicians. In the Northern part, they are recruited both by politicians and religious groups to be used in political, religious and terrorism acts. In the SW Nigeria, they find easy employment in petty criminal activities. The culture must at least accept, if not approve, violent action as a means to an end. Security is a contextual issue which no state in the international system consigns to the periphery; it is a core-value that makes the state relevant in the international system (Ndifon, et al. 2012). Death rate attributable to violence in Africa is estimated at 60.9 per 100,000 people more than twice the global rate (WHO 2004a). Crime and violence have been increasing in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa among unemployed young people. The causes are not farfetched as studies have associated rising youth unemployment to increase of violent crime in Nigeria. The accelerating level of prostitution, armed robbery, rape, terrorism and all facets of violence can be largely attributed to the incidence of unemployment. Growth has not been in line with the aspirations of the people and has not been driven by higher productivity. The public perception is that there has been little job creation. Many young people who fail to gain employment have become a burden to the employed that bear the responsibility of meeting the needs of millions of educated but increasing frustrated group, a wasting generation. The problem of violent crimes in Nigeria has been exacerbated by the high rate of unemployment and economic hardship which has pushed many jobless youths some of whom are graduates into various deadly crimes (Edward, 2011). A 2009 World Bank report on ‘Employment and Growth’, warned that, “The share of young people between the ages of 15 and 24 outside the labour force is growing, despite the country’s strong growth performance over the years”. Mass sacking in the Central Bank of Nigeria affected 7,500 banking jobs (Allafrica, 2010). The UN-Habitat study on crimes and violence stressed that socio-economic inequality and the lack of opportunities for social advancement and employment are some of the root causes of crime and violence. All this however influence the researcher to conduct this research, influence of unemployment on the increase rate of violence among youth in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to find out the influence of unemployment on the increase rate of violence among youth, specifically the study intends to:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
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