LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AN AVERAGE NIGERIAN IN RELATION TO MAKING ENDS MEET

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RESEARCH INFORMATION

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This study, LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AN AVERAGE NIGERIAN IN RELATION TO MAKING ENDS MEET contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AN AVERAGE NIGERIAN IN RELATION TO MAKING ENDS MEET

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENT       

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

1.7     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.8     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO                

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

2.2     THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.3     EMPIRICAL REVIEW

2.4     SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     INTRODUCTINTRODUCTION

3.2     RESESEARCH DESIGN

3.3     STUDY POPULATION

3.4     SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     DATA FOR THE STUDY: INSTRUMENTATION

3.6     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA PRESENTPRESENTATATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1     INTRODUCTION

4.2     DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2     CONCLUSION

5.3     RECOMMENDATION

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Life expectancy is a measure of the length of life expected to be lived by an individual at birth. Improvement of Life expectancy to at least 70 years by 2020 is one of Nigeria’s health policy targets. Life expectancy is frequently utilized and analyzed in the composition of demographic data for the countries of the world, for the attainment of mortality experiences and for more reliable international comparisons (Julien, 2009). Jie, Zhang and Lee, 2001 and Courtney,Diamond, Gruber and Jousten, 2002 noted that life expectancy has important implications for the individuals and aggregate human behavior. They noted that it has crucial effects on fertility behavior, economic growth, human capital investment, intergeneration transfers and incentives for pension benefits. Granstein and Kanganovich,2004 noted from the social planner’s perspective that life expectancy has implication for public finance.

Life expectancy is very crucial to the developing worlds who are earnestly striving for achieving socio-economic progress through investing significantly in social sectors like health, education, sanitation, environmental management and sustainability, and social safety nets Kabir, 2008. In Nigeria, as in other developing countries, variations in morbidity and mortality have been associated with a wide variety of measures of socio-economic status including per capita GDP, fertility rate, adult illiteracy rate, per capita calorie intake, health care expenditure, access to portable drinking water, urban inhabitants, unemployment rate and the nominal exchange rate.

Studies have shown that there is a significant tendency for mortality to be lower in countries with a more even distribution of income (Wilkinson, 1992; Rodger, 1979; Le Grand, 1987), but Nigeria is said to be highly non-egalitarian in income distribution. Per capita income of developing countries has improved significantly and translated into higher level of health care expenditure (Kabir, 2008). For instance there has been remarkable improvement in the incidence of income and non-income poverty overtime that have impacted positively on life expectancy. However, in many of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular, although income and health expenditure is increasing, life expectancy has been unsteady. An analysis of three docile averages show that between 1980 and 1989, in Nigeria, life expectancy averaged 45.8 years; 1990 and 1999, it was 45.6 years; and 2000 and 2010, it improved marginally to an average 58.6 years. Bello-Imam (2004) compared the Nigerian data with the sub-region and concluded that maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births in Nigeria averages 1,100 as against 900 Sub-Saharan African average; malaria mortality rate per 100,000 population of 156 as against 104 Sub-Saharan African average; tuberculosis mortality rate among HIV negative people per 100,000 population of 63 as against 51 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) average.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In an attempt to improve the aforementioned indicators and work towards the attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020, the Nigerian government has since 1980 stepped up her policy focused on the health sector through reforms and several health intervention programmes including the primary health care (PHC) intended to impact positively on life expectancy, the commercialization policy which was aimed at injecting some measure of efficiency into the public hospitals, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) initiated to mitigate the cost of access and the efficient health service delivery monitory policy (Ministry of HealthNigeria, Revised Health Policy. 2004.) etc. However, Sede and Ohemeng,2012 noted large scale inefficient utilization of available resources in most public hospitals in Nigeria. This culminates into technical and scale inefficiencies, notwithstanding the upwards trends in percentage shares of total health expenditure in GDP and total health expenditure in total government expenditure in Nigeria over time.

  • RESEARCH QUESTION

The pertinent questions to this research work are:

  1. What has the life expectancy of an average Nigerian been while trying to making ends meet?
  2. Does the socio-economic factor of Nigeria influence the life expectancy of an average Nigerian?
  3. To what extent have health policy efforts and other socio-economic variables influenced life expectancy of Nigerians?
  4. What is the causal direction between life expectancy and some of these socio-economic variables?

1.4       AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The aim of this studies is to critically study about the life expectancy of an average Nigerian in relation to making ends meet. The objectives are:

  1. To examine how the life expectancy of an average Nigerian has been while trying to making ends meet.
  2. To ascertain if the socio-economic factor of Nigeria influence the life expectancy of an average Nigerian.
  3. To study the extent at which health policy efforts and other socio-economic variables have influenced life expectancy of Nigerians.
  4. To ascertain the causal direction between life expectancy and some of these socio-economic variables.
Keywords: LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AN AVERAGE NIGERIAN IN RELATION TO MAKING ENDS MEET


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Keywords: LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AN AVERAGE NIGERIAN IN RELATION TO MAKING ENDS MEET

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