THE MATERIAL COMPOSITION IN THE PROCESSING OF CANDLE PRODUCTION

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Description

RESEARCH INFORMATION

[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: THE MATERIAL COMPOSITION IN THE PROCESSING OF CANDLE PRODUCTION
[icon type=”icon-book”]: Chapter 1 – 5
[icon type=”icon-book-open”]: 60 Pages
[icon type=”icon-basket”]: #3, 000
[icon type=”icon-doc-line”]: Ms Word format

This study, THE MATERIAL COMPOSITION IN THE PROCESSING OF CANDLE PRODUCTION contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: THE MATERIAL COMPOSITION IN THE PROCESSING OF CANDLE PRODUCTION


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RESEARCH BODY

ABSTRACT

This research relates to a candle composition containing non-hydrogenated oil and at least one of long chain hydrocarbon and long-chain hydrocarbon derivatives. A candle composition having non-hydrogenated oil and a solidifying amount of congealing reagent. A candle composition having paraffin, non-hydrogenated oil, and a solidifying amount of a congealing reagent comprising petroleum, oxidized petrolatum oxidized long-chain hydrocarbons, or modified hydrocarbons. A process for making a candle composition is also provided, the process comprising mixing together a  non hydrogenated oil and a congealing amount of a congealing reagent, heating mixture to a temperature of 75-900C, preferably 75-800C, the cooling the mixture and pouring into a container. The study also carried out the standard procedure that  results in the production of candle from the composition of candle. This article gives an overview and description of  the raw materials and additives that are used for the manufacturing of candle and explains the combustion process in the candle flames. Starting with the definition and classification of candles the criteria are presented which are crucial for the safe handling of candles i.e. ensuring they are harmless in relation to both people and the environment. The structure and content of a proposed European quality standard for candle are derived from these criteria.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One     

1.1   Introduction

1.2   Purpose of study

1.3   Statement of problem

1.4   Hypothesis

1.5   Significance of the study

1.6   Scope of study

1.7   Limitation of study

1.8   Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.1    Literature Review

2.2    Types of candle

2.3    Raw materials and additive for manufacturing candles

2.4  Candle compositions

2.5   Different ways or examples of candle composition produced

Chapter Three

3.1   Experimental procedure

3.2   Materials

3.3  Equipment

3.4  Experimental method

3.5  Testing and Analysis of the candle produced

Chapter Four    

4.1   Data Analysis

Chapter Five

Summary of findings and Conclusions, Suggestions and Recommendation.

5.1   Summary of Findings

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Suggestions and Recommendation

       References       

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

The word candle is derived from the Latin word “candera,” which roughly translates to mean “to shine.” Before the invention of electricity, candles were the only source of artificial light. The first candles were made from tallow, and then they were fashioned from beeswax and whale oil before paraffin, soy, and other vegetable-based waxes became common in recent years.

. According to the universal Lexicon of (1738) the candle is poetically defined as “a wick of threads covered with tallow or wax which, when lit, casts a bright glow which lightens a dark place.

Candles are source of light and have as a central feature one or more wicks surrounded by a solid fuel. Both definitions clearly separate the term candle from oil lamps, oil or other flammable liquid in containers.

When is at room temperature of 250C, in which solidification is guaranteed, the burning of the wick is a key function, and used with mainly waxes. Candle is often referred to as a living light and the candles flame is in fact an open fire. (The European candle makers association 2004).

Candles are used as a source of light and for their aesthetic appeal, both in terms of the type of light, which they produce, and also their appearance as articles. (Patentdocs 2008 and US patent 2006).

Even though candles have been replaced by light bulbs as a light source, the candle market is far from burning out. Candles are still used in a variety of ceremonies and on special occasions in nearly every major religion. They are also found on birthday cakes, and they are commonly used as home decor and to add romantic ambience to date nights.

Candles are available in nearly every color, shape, size, and scent imaginable. Candle making is a popular craft at summer camps and art schools, but candles can also be made at home with just a few pieces of equipment. Buyers are welcome to take the easy route and shop online for candles and candle making supplies, or they can pick up supplies in most craft and hobby stores and many discount department stores.

Thousands of years prior to the invention of electricity, candles were the only way people could illuminate their homes and other areas after the sun went down. Early Egyptians and Romans used tallow, a byproduct of rendered animal fat, to make the first candles. Tallow was set in a container over an open flame until it melted. It was then poured over a primitive wick that was typically made of cotton, flax, or hemp. The first candles were used for religious worship and to light homes.

Candle making evolved somewhat in the Middle Ages when candles were made from beeswax, but the limited availability of beeswax made candles expensive. Beeswax candles were typically reserved for religious brethren and the wealthy.

  • PURPOSE OF STUDY

The aim of this research work is to produce high quality candles that can be used at home by family members and to be sold to the public for sales and use purpose. The candle produce should have no unpleasant smell and smoke when used; instead it should have a pleasant odour and scent, clear and smokeless flames when lit, with suiting fragrance effect easily noticed in the surrounding air by inhaling with health benefits.

Candles are produced under laboratory condition and independently in large scale with the masses of the materials adequately ascertained.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

The following statements of problems are hereby formulated to assist in this research work of candle production.

  1. What raw materials require to produce high quality, very highly quality candles.
  2. What are the procedures to follow in producing the candle?
  3. How can the candle produced be tested?
  4. How duration is the candle
  5. What are the general requirements for candle making.
  • HYPOTHESIS
  1. Inappropriate requirements for the production of candle is problems
  2. Lack of adequate raw materials is a major problem in the process of manufacturing of candles.
  3. Lack of students interest by not following the manufacturers instruction, knowledge and adequate skills, which is a problem in the production of candle.
  4. Inappropriate measures and chemical needed is a problem for candle making.
  5. The presence of unpleasant smell and soothing flames in the manufacturing process and when list which has an effect on the surrounding air by inhaling affects the health of people is the biggest problems.
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This research work is significant for the following reasons because it will provide useful source of information to the teachers, students, parents, community and education officers on how to improve on the procedures of the production of candles.

Despite that, this study is also significant because it will help to throw some light on the accurate measurement involved in order to avoid little or major problems in the production of candles and finding solution to them.

  • SCOPE OF STUDY

This study is designed to describe the material composition in the processing of candle production and a process of making candle composition have non hydrogenated oil and also to know the effect of a burning candle if it is harmful or harmless to the environment.

  • LIMITATION OF STUDY

This includes the impediment encounter in the cost of doing this work. Considering the economic problem as regards to the transportation, high cost of writing materials, experimental procedure (scientifically, technically and industrial process) and printing materials. The study has been limited to seven secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

Paraffin wax: A wax-like substance obtained form petroleum, use especially for making candles.

Beeswax: A yellowish wax made by bees for building honeycombs, also used for making wood polish and candles.

Laboratory: A room or building in which scientific experiments are carried out.

Experiment: Is to work with instruments and apparatus in a practical investigation, on the behaviour and nature of substances.

Wick: Length of thread in the centre of a candle, the top end of which is lit and burns as the wax melts.

Stearic Acid: This is a colourless, odourless waxy crystalline fatty acid, usually sourced from animal tallow and vegetable oils. Used in the manufacture of candles, cosmetics, soaps, lubricants, medicines.

Dyes:  Where candles are being sold as decorative items rather than as a source of light, colour can be used to increase the attractiveness of the product.

Fragrance: These are liquids that are added to the melted wax during production of candle and can be used to increase the attractiveness of the product.

Keywords: THE MATERIAL COMPOSITION IN THE PROCESSING OF CANDLE PRODUCTION


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Keywords: THE MATERIAL COMPOSITION IN THE PROCESSING OF CANDLE PRODUCTION