PARENTAL SEPARATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON STUDENT EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT

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Keywords: PARENTAL SEPARATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON STUDENT EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

2.1.1  SEPARATION AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

2.1.2  ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

2.1.3  CONCEPTS OF SEPARATION AND DIVORCE

2.1.4  TYPES OF SEPARATION AND DIVORCE

2.1.5  CHILDREN OF DIVORCED PARENTS

2.1.6  SEPARATION RATES

2.1.7  EFFECTS OF PARENTAL SEPARATION

2.1.8  CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATION AND DIVORCE

2.2     THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.2.1  SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY

2.2.2  ATTACHMENT THEORY

2.2.3  THEORY OF MORAL ABSOLUTISM

2.2.4    Interaction of Theories within the Framework

2.3     EMPIRICAL REVIEW

2.4     SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2     AREA OF STUDY

3.3     POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.4     RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

3.6     VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.7     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

3.8     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     SUMMARY

5.2     CONCLUSION

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS

5.4     LIMITATION

5.5     SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1                   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Marriage is a basic institution in every society designed by God as a social agreement between two individuals to become husband and wife (Becker, 2002; Uka, Obidoa&Uzoechina, 2013). It is an institution that gives legitimacy to sexual relationship and reproduction for legitimate children (Ryan &Powelson, 2010). Marriage involves joining in in matrimony two individuals of different gender to become one flesh as husband and wife, given the need for companionship, procreation, continuing and sustaining family ties (Gbenda&Akume, 2002; Abane, 2003; Bumpass, 2009). Nevertheless, marital instability in the present day society is of huge concern as it is associated with separation, divorce and widowhood (Omoniyi-Oyafunke, Falola&Salau, 2014). According to Uka, et al., (2013), marriage is a legalizing of a special relationship between a man and woman to which the society gives approval; and it places partners under legal and social obligations to themselves and the society. Although the concepts of marriage and family are often used synonymously, they are not same but have distinct meanings. The term family is defined as any two people who are related to each other (Sarker, 2007). To Onwuasoanya (2006) the family is the household and those who live in one house, and a network of persons such as the couple, their offspring and kin intimately held together by a bond of social and kinship relationship. The significance of the family devoid of instability is recognized by researches locally and worldwide (Becker, 2002; Sarker, 2007; Uka et al., 2013; Omoniyi-Oyafunke et al., 2014). This is because the family without instability grows and is one where positive relationship is promoted and sustained. As a consequence, Sarker (2007) refers to marital instability as the interpersonal association and interaction within the marital relationship. Moreover, Lesmin and Sarker (2008) defined marital instability as the process whereby marriages breakdown through separation, desertion or divorce. Hence, the increasing incidence of marital disharmony such as the occurrence of divorce shows that there is marital instability in a number of families in the Nigerian context (Ezennay, 2006). Marital instability occurs as an attempt of one individual or partner to checkmate the behaviour and anticipations of the other (Uka et al., 2013).. The contact between the parent, teachers and students makes a lot of impact on the academic performance of the students. So those who do not regularly attend lectures because of lack of proper monitoring by the parents could experience challenges adjusting academically (Bumpass, 2009). Parents are thereby faced with the problem of enriching their home environment so as to establish a positive effect on the student’s academic performance in schools (Castro-Martin & Bumpass, 2009).

Available statistics of separation cases in Bolgatanga indicated that one thousand, five hundred and ninety-seven (1,597) registered marriages were dissolved by the registry during the period of five (5) years (Bolga High Court Marriage Registry, 2012). The statistics showed that one hundred and ninety-four (194) marriages were dissolved in the year 2007; two hundred and twenty-nine (229) marriages were dissolved in 2008 while two hundred and eighty-seven (287) marriages were dissolved in 2009. Further to that, three hundred and twenty-four (324) marriages were dissolved in 2010 and three hundred and thirty (330) marriages were dissolved in 2011, respectively. Between January and April of 2012, the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly (BMA) also recorded a total of two thousand, nine hundred and seventeen (2,917) dissolved customary marriages which covered a period of six years. These alarming statistics underscore the seriousness of the problem of separation no matter the factors that led to it adultery, incompatibility, poor communication, financial problem, abusive behaviour, lack of commitment to it, alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness.  Parental separation rates in the U.S. are at 50% for first marriages, and subsequent marriages are 2.5 times more likely to end in separation.      Academics are one of the most important aspects of a student’s life, with good grades, students are able to get into colleges and universities, and allow them to earn degrees in order to obtain jobs that they want. If the relationship between the student’s parents is unstable and filled with conflict, this can alter the student’s academic performance. (Afifi, 2013; Brown, 2012; Overland, 2012).

Udansky and Wolf (2008) identified single parenting as a major problem on the rise. Parent separations is a common phenomenon in the community today, but still represent a major life stressor for the individuals involved, with potentially strong negative consequences for the mental and physical health of all members of the family. The effect of separation on child academic performance has been the subject of research attention for several decades, and has long been viewed as the cause of a range of serious and enduring behavioural and emotional problems in children and adolescents (Kelly & Emery, 2003).

Park and Kim (2003) argued that the mother traditionally’ play substantial role in the care of the family. The mothers’ cares for them, listens to their problems and provide solutions. Mothers are very important in ensuring a happy childhood and meaningfully adult life for their children. The parent child relationship studies indicate that a father can contribute uniquely to the development of the child independently of the mother’s contribution. However, when issues on factors such as emotional, intelligence, self-esteem, competence and confidence come up, the father cannot be replaced easily by the mother (Park and Kim 2003).

Forman and Davies (2003) maintained that at adolescence, the individual is getting developed psychologically to cope and bear with stress and tensions which they are faced with. A child biological temperament plays a vital role in the eruption and resolution of separation (Davies 2003). According to Ekundayo&Oyeniyi (2008) and Adebule (2012), the society is tackling with many behaviour problems of the adolescent students, which include truancy, disobedience, drug addiction, smoking, flirting, stealing, armed robbery, examination malpractice, cultism, thugery, sexual abuse, sex activities, indiscriminate sex, homosexual (gay and lesbianism) as part of behaviour problems prevalent among students (Omotosho, Adeniyi and Bada 2010).

Adebowale (2006) in a study on the social behaviour of adolescents as it affects their moral behaviour observed that the type of home which the adolescent comes from, determine to a considerable extent, the type of attitude which he will develop to exhibit and his academic performance. Parental separation has a long and lasting impact on lives of any student. The state of the home or the marital status of adolescent parents speaks volume about the life of the child. Separated homes have been found as a crucial factor causing anti-social problems poor academic performances among secondary school adolescence. Olusola (2008) believed that the highest incidence of adolescents whose parents are living separately may become way-ward, unruly, or take to sexual misconduct as a way of searching for affection which was lacking in their unhappy parental home. Many researchers have shown that immoral behavior and poor academic performance are prevalent among adolescents who are from unstable or separated family, with less adequate parental training on their moral and social attitudes (William, 2002). This study intends to assess parent separation on the academic performance of adolescent students.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The issue of parental separation is an increasing social problem that has become a topic for discussion in recent times; it is traumatic for those who experience it. Those affected may experience grief, embarrassment, resentment, disappointment, intense anger and divided loyalty. Children need a secure emotional base after their parents separate, exactly as they needed before (McIntosh, 2005).  The major protective factors that facilitate children’s adjustment to divorce are low inter-parental conflict, effective and constructive resolution of conflict between the parents, the quality of the parent-child relationship, nurturing, authoritative parenting from at least one parent, and cooperative co-parenting with good communication (McIntosh, 2003).

It is these family processes that contribute to determining children’s academic performance, well-being and ‘outcomes’, rather than family structures per se (such as the number, gender, sexuality and co-habitation status of parents) Kelly (2000). Single parenthood may arise when either the male or female decides to produce and rear a child or children outside; parents can help make a smooth transition for their children during a divorce (Wolf 2008). Parents can present a reliable and cooperative parenting style when providing their children with discipline and behavior expectations (Carlson and Hines, 2003). Therefore this study intends to assess parent separation on the academic achievement of their children.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to find out the effects of parental separation on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Ijebu east local government area Ogun state, specifically the study intends to:

  1. Find out the relationship between parental separation and students’ academic achievement
  2. To examine various reasons for parental separation
  3. To identify effects of parental separation on adolescents

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will guide the researcher to achieve the specific objectives:

  1. Is there is any relationship between parental separation and academic performance of the adolescents?
  2. What are the various reasons that leads to parental separation?
  3. What are the effect of parental separation on student’s perception to life?

1.5     RESEAECH HYPOTHESIS

Ho: there is no significant relationship between parental separation and academic performance of the adolescents?

H1: there is a significant relationship between parental separation and academic performance of the adolescents?

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is the view of the researcher, that the study would give possible suggestions that would help the government, and other educational stakeholders in resolving many family/marital problems in the following ways: It is the believe of the researcher that, if parental separation is discouraged through formulation of suitable marriage policies by Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs), civil society, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the various traditional authorities, it would help improve the academic performance of students. Various religious bodies could adopt the findings to promote effective social work, guidance and counseling and marriage counseling services in their educational institutions and churches. The study would serve as a source of information for teachers, guidance and counseling coordinators, parents, social workers and nongovernmental organizations. Finally, it is envisage that this study may be useful for other researchers who are in need of literature and method of improving upon their findings further.

1.7     SCOPE OF THE STUDY     

The study seeks to find out the effects of separation on student academic performance. While the study recognizes that parental separation have effects on both adolescence and adult, and as such this study will limit itself only to the secondary school student in Ijebueast local government area in Ogun State.

1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This major constraint the researcher encountered in this study is limited time and insufficient fund to visit more than one school.

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

The terms that are used in this study are defined as they are used in this study in order to avoid any ambiguity and vagueness as it relates to research work.

Parent: is a caretaker of a child

Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school.

Separation: the process by which the couple leaves the home or decides to stay on his or her own.

Academic performance: is the outcome of education at the extent to which a student has achieved their educational goals.

Adolescence: the transitional stage of physical and psychological human development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to adult.

Keywords: PARENTAL SEPARATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON STUDENT EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT


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Keywords: PARENTAL SEPARATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON STUDENT EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT

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