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PEER GROUP INFLUENCE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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: PEER GROUP INFLUENCE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
: Chapter 1 – 5
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Keywords: PEER GROUP INFLUENCE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1                       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Peer groups are among the most influential social forces affecting adolescent behavior? From mundane decisions concerning clothing, hairstyle, music, and entertainment, to more significant decisions concerning short and long-term education plans. During the formative adolescent years, peers are arguably even more important than parents, teachers, and counselors, and the peer-influenced decisions of youth can have long-lasting consequences Coleman (1966); Sewell, Haller and Portes( 1969); Sewell, Haller and Ohlendorf (1970). Parents recognize the importance of peer groups and? Through their choice of neighborhoods, schools, and activities Haynie, South and Bose (2006); Lareau (2003); Mouw and Entwisle (2006)? Attempt to guide and direct their Children?s friendship selections, which can be increasingly challenging during adolescence. Regardless of socioeconomic status, parents want their children to be surrounded by the best possible social networks, especially during adolescence, when youth are increasingly independent from parents. During these formative years, educational goals take form, and youth make a series of decisions that shape their educational trajectories, even as their friendship networks gain influence upon these decisions. Unfortunately, the peer effects literature is lacking in two main areas. The first is that peer effects are assumed to be uniform across class, gender, and race and ethnicity. Race and ethnicity is especially likely to be important because adolescents are more likely to choose friends of the same racial and ethnic group Hamm, Brown and Heck (2005); Haynie, South and Bose(2006); Quillian and Campbell( 2003), introducing the possibility that peers have differing effects by race and ethnicity. The second problem is that few studies focus on academic decisions that are directly 2 influenced by friends, such as course or track selection and college choices. Instead, most studies of peer effects focus on educational outcomes that are indirectly influenced by friends, such as early cognitive development, grades, promotion, and, most commonly, test scores Goux and Maurin, (2007); Hanushek (2003); Henry and Rickman (2007); Kang (2007); Zimmerman (2003). Hanushek et al. (2003) and others have pointed out that if innovations to behavior form an important avenue through which peers affect outcomes, the inability to capture such behavior might lead to a serious underestimation of peer influences. Thus, behavior decisions may lie at the intersection between peers and achievement? Effectively acting as a mediator through which the influence of peers passes prior to shaping student achievement. Educational activities are geared towards ensuring that students achieve mastery of educational objectives. In school, the extent to which these objectives have been achieved, is determined by their level of peer pressure, time management as students? Success are reflected in their academic performance. Peers play a large role in the social and emotional development of adolescents Allen (2005). Their influence begins at an early age and increases through the teenage years, it is natural, healthy and important for adolescent to have and rely on friends as they grow and mature. A peer could be any one you look up to in behavior or someone who you would think is equal to your age or ability (Hardcastle, 2002). On the other hand, the term? Pressure? Implies the process that influence people to do something that they might not otherwise choose to do. According to Hartney, (2011) peer pressure refers to the influences that peers can have on each other. Peer pressure is emotional or mental forces from people belonging to the same social group (such as age, grade or status) to act or behave in a manner similar to themselves (Weinfied 2010). Jones, (2010) defined peer pressure as the ability of people from the same social rank or age to influence another of same age, bracket peer pressure is usually associated with teens although its influence is not confined to teenagers alone. However, peers can also have a negative influence. They can encourage each other to skip classes, steal, cheat, use of drugs or alcohol, or become involve in other risky behaviors. Majority of adolescents with substance abuse problems began using drug or alcohol as a result of peer pressure. Negative peer pressure may influence in various ways like joining group who drink alcohol, smoke cigarette and Indian hemp among others. It may also lead to the decision to have a boyfriend/girlfriend, Peer pressure indulges youth into loitering about in the streets, watching films and attending parties during school hours, taping as alternative to stealing which may eventually graduate into armed robbery. (Arief, 2011), Peer pressure may be present in the workplace, at school or within the society, it can affect people of all ages. It may affect people in different ways but here, the focus is on peer pressure as it influences academic performance of in school adolescents. Peer pressure may have a positive influence and help to 3 challenge or motivate one to do best. Peer pressure may also result in one doing thing that may not fit with ones sense of what is right or wrong. In other words, when peer pressure makes one do things that people frown at, it is a negative peer pressure. Operationally peer pressure is a force exert by people that is influenced by ideas, values and behavior either positively or negatively and always associated with adolescents. Study shown that many popular students who do not manage their time well make lower grades than less socially accepted adolescent (Hartney, 1990). This is possibly due to the fact that popular students may spend more time worrying about their social life rather than studying. Understanding the nature and the magnitude of peer group effects in education is crucial for the?Productivity? Of educational processes and the organizational design of school systems. for example, in order to improve student outcomes, it is important to know which inputs influence their performance most and the relative importance of peer effects compared to other inputs, such as teacher quality or school resources. Peer effects are also important in school Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Calabria. The blame for poor academic performance among secondary school students could be attributable to a variety of factors such as student inability to manage their time, peers influence, family factors and the likes. Parents, teachers, curriculum, experts and evaluators have expressed considerable concern over the deteriorating students? Performance in public examinations. Therefore, an in-school adolescent should avoid negative pressure such loitering along the street during school hours holding parties at the expense of their study, skipping school and drug abuse. That will create room for poor academic performance. The adolescent should move with people that study their books in order to have good academic performance. This research is geared toward finding out the effects of peer group influence on the performance of secondary school students.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Understanding the nature and the magnitude of peer group influence in education is crucial for the? Productivity? Of educational processes and the organizational design of school systems. For example, in order to improve student outcomes, it is important to know which inputs influence their performance most and the relative importance of peer influence compared to other inputs, such as teacher quality or school resources. Peer-group influences are a distinct class of influences arising from? Social interactions? A broad term which encompasses any type of individual behavior that involves interdependency with the behavior or characteristics of others. Reports have shown that there has been a downward trend in academic performance of in-school adolescents in Nigerian secondary school in general and 11 in Umuahia Education Zone, Abia state in particular. Parents, teachers, Curriculum experts have also expressed considerable concern about this poor performance in external examination such as West African Examination Council. So also are teachers and school counselor. These groups of individuals tend to point accusing fingers on influence of negative peer pressure and poor time management as being responsible for poor academic performance. These factors are suspected for the luring of adolescents into engagement in negative habits such as excessive drinking of alcohol, smoking, of Indian hemp, engagement in unhealthy sexual behavior, cultist activities and other maladjusted behaviors that distract them from academic pursuit. These unhealthy behaviors of adolescents which in turn impacts poor academic performance make the researcher to ask?Why are Nigerian adolescent not very concern about the current trend on their academic performance in examination?

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of the study is to determine the relationship among peer pressure, time management and academic performance of, the study was guided by the following objectives:

  1. To establish how peer group influence affect academic performance
  2. To determine the relationship between peer pressure and academic performance of secondary school students
  3. Find out the level of peer pressure among secondary school students
  4. To examine how environment influence performance of secondary school students

 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Based on the objectives of this study the following questions will guide the researcher while conducting this research:

  1. How does peer group influence affects the academic performance of students?
  2. Is there any relationship between peer group pressure and the academic performance of students
  3. What is the level of peer group pressure among students
  4. Does the students environment has any influence on his academic performance

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will expose the teachers, parents and the government on the rate at which peer group influences the academic performance of students, also the study will guide the policy makers and stakeholder involve in policy making on the policies to formulate to guide the students from any negative peer group pressure they may encounter. Also the study findings would also assist schools to eradicate negative peer influence among their students.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research is intended to cover all the secondary school students of the federal republic of Nigeria but due to some constraints the researcher limits his findings to schools in two local government area in Lagos state. They are: Mushin LGA and Oshodi-Isolo LGA.

1.7 DELIMITAION OF THE STUDY

This study was limited due to inadequate time, however the researcher keenly followed the time frame. The respondents were also shy about giving information thinking it was for commercial purposes but they were assured of confidentiality. Also insufficient fund to finance this study and lastly it was not easy to get some respondents to respond to the questions but the researcher was patient enough to achieve the intend objective of this study.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Academic performance: Scores attained in form one end of year examination.

Peer group: A group of students in the same class.

Peer pressure: Influences from students in the same class.

Effect: a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause. Secondary school: the school in-between basic school and college

Keywords: PEER GROUP INFLUENCE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS



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