This study,PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT FACED BY NIGERIA GRADUATES IN THE LABOUR MARKET contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.0 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.1.1 CONCEPT OF UNEMPLOYMENT
2.1.2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
2.1.2 CAUSES OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
2.1.3 EFFECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA
2.1.4 SOLUTIONS TO YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
2.1.5 LABOUR MARKET TRENDS FOR GRADUATES IN NIGERIA
2.1.6 SOURCES OF LABOUR DEMAND FOR UNIVERSITY GRADUATES
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.5 SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Nigerian has the potential for rapid economic growth and development, given her rich human and material resources. Yet, the economic performance of the country has been described as erratic, dismal, truncated and largely unimpressed (Ajayi, 2002; Iyoha and Oriakhi, 2002; Kayode, 2004; Ekpo, 2008). The poor growth performance of the economy is depicted in the rising incidence of poverty, massive and graduate unemployment, skyrocketing inflation, worsening balance of payments disequilibrium, monumental external debt burden, widening income disparity and growing fiscal imbalances, which taken together constitute Nigeria’s crises of underdevelopment.
Gbosi (2006) defined unemployment as a situation in which people who are willing to work at the prevailing wage rate are unable to find jobs. A more encompassing definition is provided by the International Labor Organization (ILO) as cited in Akintoye (2008) thus: “ the unemployed is a member of the economically active population, who are without work but available for and seeking for work, including people who have lost their jobs and those who have voluntarily left work” (p.98). Unemployment assumed a doomsday scenario in Nigeria a decade after political independence.
Of all the problems facing Nigeria in recent times which are being reported daily in some national newspapers and magazines, such as insecurity challenges, assassination of political opponents, feud over chieftaincy affairs, bunkering, willful vandalization of pipelines, interreligious crisis, armed robbery, kidnapping, bribery and corruption, examination malpractice, cultism in educational institutions, incessant strike by workers over poor conditions of service and high rate of unemployment among Nigerian graduates, none is as virulent, persistent and agonizing as the problem of high rate of unemployment among Nigeria graduates. The number increased to thirteen in 1977, while eight additional Universities were established in 1983. Moreover, based on the recommendations of the Longe Commission (Longe Report, 1991); and the promulgation of Act No.9 of 1993, the Federal Government decided to lift ban on the establishment of private Universities in the country. This Act repealed the abolition and prohibition of the private Universities upon satisfying the laid down regulations and guidelines and getting government approval. Moreover, the legal support for the establishment of the private Universities in Nigeria was provided by the Act. In September, 1993, the Federal Regulatory Agency, the National Universities Commission started issuing application forms to prospective proprietors of the private Universities.
Account by Akintoye (2008) showed that between 1970 and 1980, national unemployment rate rose from 4.3 to 6.4% and further rose to 7.1% in 1987. The author attributed this development to the economic depression which engulfed the nation form 1980, resulting in massive closure of businesses and retrenchment of workers. This was followed by the placement of embargo on recruitment which further worsened the unemployment situation. However, the author reported that the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) had a salutary effect on job creation leading to a sharp fall in unemployment rate from 7.1% in 1987 to 1.8% in 1995. Thereafter, unemployment figure hovered around 4% between 1996 and 2000. One worrisome trend in the Nigeria labour market of recent has been the growing incidence of unemployment among professionals such as accountants, engineers and other graduates from universities and other tertiary institutions. Akintoye (2008) reported that graduate unemployment as a percentage of total unemployment rose from 1% in 1974 to 4% in 1984. Dabalen et al. (2000) also reported that graduate unemployment accounted for 32% of the total unemployed labour force between 1992 and 1997. This growing incidence of graduate unemployment in the face of acute skill shortages presents a paradox which further complicates the analysis of labour market distortions in Nigerian. Expectedly, employment generation (or unemployment reduction) has remained the central focus of macroeconomic goals in Nigeria. It is a continuing policy and responsibility of the federal government to use all practical means to promote higher level of employment, production and purchasing power (Essien and Atan, 2006). In this study, attempt is made to contribute to the resolution of this paradox by taking a look at the demand and the supply sides of labour market for university graduates in Nigeria as well as appraising the existing gap in the employment market for university graduates.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Unemployment has been on the increase in Nigeria for quite some decades now. The problem of unemployment in Nigeria is one which has lingered for so long and Nigeria is yet to find a lasting solution to this problem. Nigeria as a country is characterised by high rate of youth unemployment; a situation where university graduates roam around the streets in search of jobs which are not forthcoming. Even where it is available, the graduates barely have the qualification for the job as the employers ridiculously will insist they must have had some years of experience before they can be employed (Alanana, 2003).
This situation has been attributed to general lack of skill by the youth as many have not acquired the requisite skills to secure jobs in the formal sector, the high population growth rate in the country producing a large army of labour which is mostly unskilled. More so, many youths are willing to do business and improve their standard of living but blame their short handedness to inadequate capital and or lack of capital.
Also, business tycoons and entrepreneurs have come clear on the issue of unemployment in Nigeria, claiming that jobs are not the problem but that our youths are not just employable (Okojie, 2013). Due to this problem, youths take up jobs for which they are ill suited which leads to low productivity hence underemployment though the Nigerian government claims to be trying all it can in tackling this problem by putting some policies in place, the continual increase in the unemployment rate suggests inefficiency on the part of the policy makers, this situation can be likened to that of a doctor prescribing the wrong drug for a sickness (Steve, 2005).
The Nigeria economy, like those of other developing third world countries, is poised for a very rough time. Statistics indicates that over 70% of the population is below the poverty line of 1$ a day. Unemployment rate, officially said to be 5%, but in reality perhaps, doubles that, and has remained very high. Indeed Nigeria competes for the highest rate of youth and graduate unemployment in Africa which says quite a lot, not just about investment in social capital, but also its utilization (Luke, 2008).
Attributable also to the view of policy makers and the youths, employment means a job with salary and working for someone else.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the problems of unemployment among the Nigeria graduates. To x-ray the causes of unemployment among the youth also to ascertain the impact of youth unemployment in Nigeria. The specific objectives are;
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions will guide the researcher to archive the stated objective
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: There is no significance impact of unemployment on Nigeria economy
H1: There is a significance impact of unemployment on Nigeria economy
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will expose the government and other policy makers on the insight into the problems of unemployment facing the economy and provide solutions for economic growth and development in Nigeria. Also to other researchers, it will add up to knowledge in relation to the Nigerian economy. It will also bring fulfilment of academic pursuit, thereby serving as a medium for students that would embark on similar research work in the future.
And to the general public, the study will broaden their knowledge about the effects of youth unemployment and would also serve s an aid to providing information for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is wide. This is because unemployment and its impact on the youth is a global issue. Therefore, the researcher intends to limit the study of the impact of youth unemployment on Ikeja local government area in Lagos state, but will generalize the result with what can be obtainable in the Nigerian Economy as a whole.
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
However, in the course of carrying out this research work, the researcher can foresee some limitations which include; insufficient financing, insufficient data for the research work and the time required for the project to be concluded.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
In order to prevent confusion and ambiguity of words used in this research work, the words used can be defined operationally as follows;
IMPACT: This implies the effect or influence of a situation producing consequences on something of someone.
YOUTH: This comprises of young persons between the ages of 18 and 44.
UNEMPLOYMENT: Refers to a socio-economic situationin which persons who are actively seeking, willing and able to work have no work.
NIGERIAN ECONOMY: This refers to one of the most developed economies in Africa. It is a middle income nation with developed financial, communication and transportation sectors.
L.G. A: This refers to the abbreviation of Local Government Area.
GRADUATES: a person who has successfully completed a course of study or training, especially a person who has been awarded an undergraduate or first academic degree.
LABOUR MARKET: the availability of employment and labour, in terms of supply and demand
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