This study, THE IMPACT OF PROJECT BASED LEARNING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.1.1 CONCEPT OF P.B.L
2.1.2 PROJECT-BASED LEARNING: A SCHOOL REDESIGN
2.1.3 EXAMPLES OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING
2.1.4 ASSESSMENT OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING
2.1.5 PROJECT-BASED LEARNING (PJBL): A POSSIBLE
SOLUTION FOR ATTENDANCE ISSUES?
2.1.6 CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH ENACTING PBL
2.1.7 ANALYSIS OF APPLIED RESULTS ON PROJECT-BASED LEARNING
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.2.1 KOLB’S (1984) EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING THEORY (ELT)
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.5 SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Considerable empirical evidence exists that when students drop out of high school, the economic and social health of America is jeopardized. Dropouts are likely to be dependent on public assistance, engage in criminal activities, and experience health problems (Muennig, 2007; Rumberger, & Thomas, 2000; Waldfogel, Garfinkel, & Kelly, 2007). Much of the attention on dropouts has focused on high schools and their efforts to build and sustain high levels of student engagement in school and learning through innovative practices (Finn, 1993; Marks, 2000). However, as Orthernr, Cook, Rose and Randolph (2002) reported, many students do not have access to these innovative efforts because they disengage from their education well before high school. In fact, “the social-psychological and behavioral disengagement from school that leads to dropping out often begins in middle school” (Orthernr, Cook, Rose, & Randolph, 2010, p. 223). Equally concerning are the difficult transitions middle school students experience and the impact of such transitions on standardized test scores. Randolph, Fraser and Orthner (2006) reported that if students experienced difficult transitions from fifth to sixth grade, their math and reading scores significantly declined. On one hand, adolescents, ages 10-15, go through rapid change and are vulnerable to their emotions (Johnson, 2012). Johnson goes on to say, they are fun, excited about life, sensitive, overwhelmed and in turmoil. Their emotions are high and logic rarely prevails. Friends begin to replace parents and peer acceptance, socialization, appearance and body image are everything. The middle school student continuously tests and breaks the rules but needs boundaries. They demand independence but seek the reassurance of love and caring from adults. The middle school student is a conflicted human being. On the other hand, we know little of how middle schools are approaching these student behaviors amidst standardization. Evidence exists that intervention programs aimed at over-age middle school students help students back on track for on-time graduation (Finnan & Kombe, 2011). These accelerated programs help students develop confidence through academic accomplishments, a sense of belonging and engagement in the classroom. However, with these types of intervention programs limitations exists because they rarely include preparing students for experiences outside of the classroom and as a contributing member of society. Furthermore, academic accomplishments do not necessary translate to whether a student is able to apply what he or she has learned to his or her daily life. As Dewey suggested, it is important to consider whether educational experiences isolate the student from life experiences. Others, such as Richardson (2012), suggested a shift in curriculum and pedagogy to allow for personalized learning experiences that allow students to connect his or her passions and interests as learners with society expectations. It is with this understanding that led the South Texas district in this study to adopt Project-Based Learning (PBL).
Project-based learning is a strategy used for engaging students in active and responsible learning. Students participated in an extended process of inquiry in response to a complex question, problem, or challenge, and students who otherwise found school boring or meaningless were motivated to learn. Project-based learning motivated students to engage in their own learning and offered them the opportunity to pursue their own interests as they made decisions to solve real problems (Buck Institute for Education, 2011; Harada, Kirio, & Yamamoto, 2008). Researchers conducted studies over the last two decades that confirmed student engagement and motivation lead to higher academic performance (Brewster & Fager; Anderman & Midgley & Lumbsden).
Previous studies have demonstrated that using project-based learning had impacted student achievement in a multiplicity of ways. For the purpose of this study, the researcher was concerned with investigating the attributes or pedagogies within projectbased learning that impacted student with low academic achievement. Just learning about things, did not enable students to acquire the abilities, and understanding they needed for 21st century applications, rather,they needed new pedagogies of engagement that were meaningful, and resourceful for them to apply in the real world (Buck Institute for Education, (2011). In addition, studies have shown that enhancements to project-based learning such as computer technology, cooperatives, other technology tools, attributes such as motivation, and attitudes to work, provided meaningful learning and increased interest (Edgerton) as cited in Smith, Sheppard, Johnson, & Johnson (2005). Extensive research was conducted on cooperative learning where small groups were used to maximize students’ learning (Smith et al., 2005). Technology enhancements to project-based learning were widely researched as well. The benefits of project-based learning were enhanced when technology was used (Edutopia, 2001). The researcher, however, used the grounded theory process to provide information on enhancements for analysis.
Previous studies have demonstrated that using project-based learning had impacted student achievement in a multiplicity of ways. For the purpose of this study, the researcher was concerned with investigating the attributes or pedagogies within project based learning that impacted student with low academic achievement. Just learning about things, did not enable students to acquire the abilities, and understanding they needed for 21st century applications, rather, they needed new pedagogies of engagement that were meaningful, and resourceful for them to apply in the real world (Buck Institute for Education, (2011). In addition, studies have shown that enhancements to project-based learning such as computer technology, cooperatives, other technology tools, attributes such as motivation, and attitudes to work, provided meaningful learning and increased interest (Edgerton) as cited in Smith, Sheppard, Johnson, & Johnson (2005). Extensive research was conducted on cooperative learning where small groups were used to maximize students’ learning (Smith et al., 2005). Technology enhancements to project-based learning were widely researched as well. The benefits of project-based learning were enhanced when technology was used (Edutopia, 2001). The researcher, however, used the grounded theory process to provide information on enhancements for analysis.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Implementation research consists of studies designed to describe and inform the processes of planning and enactment of Project-Based Learning. Typically, implementation research involves observation, questionnaires, and interviews intended to identify difficulties encountered by participants with different aspects of the planning or enactment process. Implementation research is also referred to as formative evaluation and can be focused on a variety of participants (e. g., teachers, students, administrators, parents), factors (e. g., classroom factors, external factors, supports), and contexts (e. g., planning, working with others, enacting, troubleshooting, assessing).
More specifically, students tended to pursue questions without examining the merits of the question, they tended to pursue questions that were based on personal preference rather than questions that were warranted by the scientific content of the project, they had difficulty understanding the concept of controlled environments, they created research designs that were inadequate given their research questions, they developed incomplete plans for data collection, they often failed to carry out their plans systematically, they tended to present data and state conclusions without describing the link between the two, and they often did not use all of their data in drawing conclusions.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of project based learning on academic achievement of secondary school students, specifically the study intends to:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions was formulated to guide this research arrive at a valid conclusion:
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: there is no significance impact of project based learning on the academic achievement of the students
Hi: there is a significance impact of project based learning on the academic achievement of the students
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will expose the government at various level, stakeholders involve in education policies, teachers, school management on the important of using project based method as a teaching method, also on the problems of using the methods in school. And finally this projects will serve as reference for others who wants to embark on the same research.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study impact of project based learning on academic achievement of Senior Secondary School student covers schools in Akwa Ibom state but due to time and financial constraint samples was taken only from schools Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
However, in the course of carrying out this research work, the researcher can foresee some limitations which include; insufficient financing, insufficient data for the research work and the time required for the project to be concluded.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: a marked effect or influence.
Project Based learning: a teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to an authentic, engaging and complex question, problem, or challenge.
Secondary school: school intermediate between elementary school and college and usually offering general, technical, vocational, or college-preparatory courses.
Student’s: a person who is studying at a university or other place of higher education
academic achievement: the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
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