PROJECT TOPIC : ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INTERACTING WITH THE PROVISION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES IN DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY
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Keywords: provision of guidance and counselling,guidance and counselling services
Background to the Study
As a generic term, guidance and counselling (though not initially conceptualized as such) is as old as the human race. Philosophers, priests, prophets, parents and elders in the society were mostly involved in the traditional guidance process.
According to Igborgbor (1991), these categories of quasi-counsellors offered advice to those who came to them and made general and specific pronouncements on the good life and the world of work. Though quite useful, traditional guidance have some limitation. For instance, it is carried out by untrained counsellors who limited their activities to advice giving. It lacks objectivity in assessment and treatment procedures. These limitations coupled with the complexities of modern societies necessitated the emergence of modern guidance and counselling.
As a discipline and as a professional service, guidance and counselling is less than a hundred years old. It is pertinent to mention that modern guidance and counselling did not develop at the same time in various parts of the world. As various countries perceive the needs for guidance and counselling. Appropriate strategies were adopted to enhance its development.
According to okobiah and okorodudu (1997) the development of modern guidance in Nigeria dates back to some six decades. Adugbo (1990) reported that as far back as 1947, representatives from the federal ministry of labour were sent to Benin Delta area of the former western region to give talks to graduating secondary school students on career and subject choice.
However, many authorities agree that organised modern guidance started in 1959 at St. Theresa’s college, Oke-Ado in Ibadan. A group of reverend sisters felt the need to provide help for their graduating students in choosing courses for further studies, seeking admission into higher institutions of learning, looking for employment and adjusting to hard societal realities. So they invited twenty (20) educated people (experts) from various occupations to give talks to sixty (60) of their graduating students towards the end of he academic session. According to Makinde (1988), fifty-four (54) out of the sixty students who benefited from the talk were placed in various jobs afterwards.
The success of the services attracted much attention. Subsequently, career councils were formed in Ibadan, Lagos, Enugu, Benin-city, Kano and Kaduna. Hence, one can safely conclude that the efforts of these groups contributed greatly to the growth and development of professional guidance in Nigeria.
In 1967, all the career councils merged to form the Nigerian career council with its headquarters at Ibadan. The Nigerian career council publishes a professional journal known as the “career” which reports the council’s activities.
Another remarkable development is the establishment of Test Development and Research Organisation (TEDRO) which is an arm of the West African Examination Council (WAEC). TEDRO is responsible for the construction and analysis of psychometric instruments for the development and administration of manpower selection tests for educational, governmental, industrial, and commercial use.
In 1976, the Nigerian career council metamorphosed to Counselling Association of Nigeria (CAN) which is recognised as a professional body of trained guidance counsellors with professor Olu Makinde as its first president. The major objectives of the professional association is to promote effective guidance and counselling in the interest of the individual and society. The association publishes a journal known as “the counsellor”. The acronym CAN was changed to CASSON in 1991 to distinguish it from similar acronym like Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN). Also in 1976, the first department of guidance and counselling was established at university of Ibadan (Irabor, 1997).
Presently, most Nigerian universities (both state and federal), offers undergraduate and post-graduate degree programmes in guidance and counselling. Like some other universities in the country, Delta state university have not just a department of guidance and counselling but also a students counselling centre.
A very significant factor in the development of guidance and counselling, is the introduction of the new national policy on education (NPE) with its 6-3-3-4 system of education. The Nigerian government in recognition of the importance of guidance and counselling in her educational system included it in the NPE, stating:
In view of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects, and in view of personality maladjustment among school children, career officers and counsellors shall be appointed in post-primary institutions. Since qualified personnel in this category are scarce, government shall continue to make provisions for the training of interested teachers in guidance and counselling. guidance and counselling shall also feature in teacher education programmes. Proprietors of schools shall provide guidance-counsellors in adequate number in each primary and post-primary school (NPE 4th ed. 2004 page 53)
The above statement shows that planners of NPE were aware of the need for guidance and counselling services in Nigeria schools.
However, the realisation of the guidance and counselling objectives require a coordinated effort among individuals and groups as well as enormous material resources.
Looking back to the state of affairs in 1985 when the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 system (as provided for in NPE) started, one can say that a lot of progress has been made. Nevertheless, personality maladjustment and ignorance about career prospects is still evident among many undergraduates and graduates from Nigerian universities.
Obviously, some factors are militating against the effective provision of guidance and counselling services in Nigerian universities and delta state university is not an exception. Some of the identified factors are:
üInadequate publicity of guidance and counselling services
üNegative attitude of students and school administrators
üInadequacy of qualified counselling personnel
It is against this background that this study seeks to find out the extent that these factors are affecting guidance and counselling services and to suggest how to ensure effective provision of guidance and counselling services in Delta State University and other universities in Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem
The provision of guidance and counselling services is not very effective due to so many reasons such as inadequate policy, poor publicity, inadequate facilities, lack of qualified counselling personnel as well as the negative attitude of students and school administrators.
It is necessary to carry out investigation to find out the extent to which the above named factors are affecting the provision of guidance and counselling services in DELSU.
As can be seen, some of the factors are intrinsic while others are extrinsic. A carful study will reveal which and where (internal or external) changes need to be made to ensure effective provision of guidance and counselling services.
To analyse the factors interacting with the provision of guidance and counselling services in Delta State University, this study will strive to find answers to the following research questions:
- To what extent does inadequate representation of guidance and counselling in the National Policy on Education (NPE) affect the provision of guidance and counselling services?
- To what extent does inadequate publicity affect the provision of guidance and counselling services?
- Does inadequate facilities significantly affect the effective delivery of guidance and counselling services?
- Is effective guidance and counselling significantly affected by the negative attitude of students and school administrators?
- To what extent does inadequacy of qualified personnel affect the provision of guidance and counselling services in Delta State University?
The following null hypotheses will be subjected to scientific investigation.
- There is no significant relationship between policy framework and effective guidance and counselling services.
- There is no significant relationship between the level of publicity and effective guidance and counselling.
- There is no significant relationship between adequacy of facilities and effective guidance and counselling services.
- There is no significant relationship between the attitude of stakeholders and the provision of effective guidance services.
- There is no significant relationship between availability of qualified personnel and effective guidance and counselling.
Purpose of the Study
This study seeks to analyse factors affecting the provisions of guidance and counselling services in Delta State University Abraka.
To be more specific, this research work wants to find out the following:
- How the policy provision in the NPE affects the services of guidance and counselling.
- If there is adequate publicity of guidance and counselling services in Delta State University, Abraka.
- The extent to which inadequate facilities affects the effective delivery of guidance and counselling services in DELSU.
- The attitude of students and school administrators towards guidance and counselling services in DELSU.
- The relationship between adequacy of qualified staff and effective guidance and counselling services.
Significance of the Study
Effective guidance and counselling is the bedrock for all round development of individuals. As individuals discover their interest and capabilities they move towards self actualization which results in individual and societal well-being.
This study will contribute meaningfully to effective guidance and counselling as well as to existing literature on this subject matter. Specifically, the study will be beneficial in the following areas:
- The result from the study will help in throwing more light on how guidance and counselling services is being implemented in Nigerian universities.
- It will sensitize students about the availability and importance of guidance and counselling services, so that they can take advantage of it.
- In addition, it will enlighten education planners and school administrators about their responsibility in providing adequate facilities for guidance and counselling services in order for students to receive quality guidance.
- The study will also reveal the extent to which guidance and counselling services influence the total development of the potentials and proper adjustment of undergraduates.
- This study will be of immerse benefits to professional counsellors because it will help them to appreciate their strategic position in ensuring efficient provision of guidance and counselling services.
The focus of this study is on the problems militating against the provision of guidance and counselling services in Delta State University. This work will be restricted to Abraka main campus of the Delta State University. Students will be randomly selected from the six (6) faculties in Abraka Campus.
Definition of Terms
To ensure that terms used in this work are interpreted according to the researchers intention, the following key words are operationally defined:
- Analysis: this refers to a careful examination of variables with a view to ascertaining how they relate with effective guidance and counselling.
- Factors: these are things that have the potential to enhance or hinder the provision of guidance and counselling services.
- Community of jobless graduates: this refers to the group of job seekers who after completing their university education fail to secure a means of livelihood. Most often, such individuals have very narrow view of vocational opportunities and job requirements
- Guidance and counselling services: these are activities designed to assist individuals and groups to recognise their strengths and limitations as well as opportunities opened to them so as to enable them develop to their fullest potentials.
Delta state university, Abraka: this refers to Abraka main campus of the Delta State University (DELSU), which comprise of site I, site II, and site III. All three (3) sites are located in Abraka.