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Keywords:ASPECTS OF QUESTION FORMATION IN ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CP Complementizer Phrases
VP Verb Phrases
NP Noun Phrases
IP Inflectional Phrases
AdjP Adjective Phrases
PP Prepositional Phrases
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Abbreviations
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ LANGUAGE AND ITS SPEAKERS
1.0 General Background
1.1 Historical Background
1.2 Socio-Cultural Profile
1.2.1 Dressing Mode of Ìjà-Kórò
1.2.2 Religion of Ìjà-Kórò
1.2.3 Naming Ceremony of Ìjà-Kórò
1.2.4 Marriage System of Ìjà-Kórò
1.2.5 Burial Ceremony of Ika-Koro
1.2.6 Festivals of Ìjà-Kórò
1.2.7 Traditional Administration
1.2.8 Economic Activities of Ìjà-Kórò
1.2.9 Geographical Location of Ìjà-Kórò
1.3 Genetic Classification
1.4 Scope and Organization of Study
1.5 Data Collection
1.6 Review of Theoretical Framework
1.6.1 X-Bar Theory
1.6.2 Theta (Ө) Theory
1.6.3 Case Theory
1.6.4 Binding Theory
CHAPTER TWO: PHONO-SYNTAX OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
2.1 Brief Phonological Description and Distribution
2.1.1 Ìjà-Kórò Sound System
2.1.2 Distribution of Ìjà-Kórò Sounds
2.1.3 Tonal System of Ìjà-Kórò
2.2 Vowels in Ìjà-Kórò
2.2.1 Vowel Charts in Ìjà-Kórò
2.2.2 Nasal Charts of Ìjà-Kórò
2.2.3 Distribution of Vowels Segment in Ìjà-Kórò
2.3 Tonal System of Ìjà-Kórò
2.3.1 Description and Distribution of Tone in Ìjà-Kórò
2.4 The Syllable Structure of Ìjà-Kórò
2.4.1 Syllable Structure of Ìjà-Kórò
2.5 Lexical Categories
2.5.2 Intransitive Verb
2.6 Phrase Structure Rule
2.7 Basic Word Order
2.8 Sentence Types in Ìjà-Kórò
CHAPTER THREE: QUESTION FORMATION OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
3.1 WH-Question in Ìjà-Kórò
3.3. Yes/No Question
3.4 Echo Question
CHAPTER FOUR: TRANSFORMATIONAL RULES OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
4.1 Transformational Rules
4.3 Focus Construction
4.3.1 Subject Focus
4.3.2 Object Focus
4.3.3 Indirect Object
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.0 GENERAL BACKGROUND
Koro is the name of the main language, Ija is the name of the town that the speaker of Koro lives. The speakers are known as Ìjà-Kórò, sometimes they are often called Ìjà-Kórò. Majority of the speakers of this language resides at Ija, southern part of Abuja (FCT). The Ìjà-Kórò people are about 900,000 in population (this is from the head count of the year 2000 census population).
Koro as a language that has three dialects: Ìjà-Kórò, Koto-shako and koto-kaffin. Koro-shako and koto-kaffin are spoken in Niger state in a small town called shako and kaffin respectively. But their dialect are not so different from each other both speakers (shako and kaffin) can speak Ìjà-Kórò, only Ìjà-Kórò speakers cannot speak koro-shako and koro kaffin because they are far from them.
Ìjà-Kórò exists with two neighboring tribe Ijagwuari and Bwuari. Therefore Ìjà-Kórò people are multi-lingual; they speak Hausa, Gwuari and Ìjà-Kórò.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Ìjà-Kórò people migrated from Zuba as a result of looking for a fertile land for farming, Zuba is the largest town where so many farmers has occupied the land. So koro people moved to Ija in 1814. They settled at Ìjà-Kórò and started farming there till date.
1.2 SOCIO-CULTURAL PROFILE
The Ija koro people like many other tribes have their own unique cultural lifestyle. The Ìjà-Kórò have some unique way of life that are discussed below;
1.2.1 DRESSING MODE OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
Before the intervention of the whites in time past the Ìjà-Kórò people wear leaves and animal skin but after the invention of the white, Ìjà-Kórò people started wearing cloth, meanwhile they are fond of native. Their major mode of dressing now is in native both the men and women.
1.2.2 RELIGION OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
Before the intervention of the white Ìjà-Kórò people were Idol worshippers, but after the invention of the white Christianity and Islamic religion became the religion of the Ìjà-Kórò. But Islamic religion is the dominant religion of the Ìjà-Kórò people.
1.2.3 NAMING CEREMONY OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
In Ìjà-Kórò, like many other place in the world, when a child is born, the naming ceremony commence on the seventh day.
Their naming ceremony is usually a fun filled one or interesting one, the unique thing about their naming ceremony is that the grandfather and the grandmother of the new baby will prepare the food and bush meat for the ceremony, and send some of it to the grandfather and grandmother to the mother of the new baby. The naming ceremony is usually a cultured one, very lively and filled with merriment.
1.2.4 MARRIAGE SYSTEM OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
In Ìjà-Kórò, in time past just like in some other culture too, parent chooses wife for their sons. But now in this jet age the story is different, the man chooses the woman of his choice. After the agreement between the man and the woman to marry each other, the parent of the man will prepare echi (rice) and big cola-nut to give to the bride parent which they will accept. After, the mother of the man will come back at night with the bride price to give to the bride parent and to take bride to her husband’s house.
In Ìjà-Kórò, marriage are done between families, in which the man in family A marry the woman in family B and also the man in family B will marry from family A, it is just like an exchange marriage system. Ìjà-Kórò people do not have a particular age they get married, it all depends on the financial capability of the man and the maturity of the woman.
1.2.5 BURIAL CEREMONY OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
Another unique feature of the cultural profile of the Ìjà-Kórò that must not be left unmentioned is the way burial arrangements are carried out. There is celebrations for Ìjà-Kórò man or woman that dies between the age 50years and above, because they believe they have gone to rest with their God. Therefore there will be eating and drinking for 7 days at the front of the deceased house, there will be beating of drums and celebration for good 4 to 5 days, all these happen after the deceased have been buried. However, if a person dies in the evening the burial will commence the next day, it is after the burial that there is continuous dancing for 4 to 5 days.
Meanwhile if the deceased is below the age of 50 years, there will be no celebration because the person is not of age.
1.2.6 FESTIVALS OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
Ìjà-Kórò people celebrate the common or usual festivals of Ileya and Christmas yearly but they also have their own particular festival which is called ekòo (ekò) in their native language which is done in recognition of the dead. This festival is celebrated every 10years or decade in other to remember their dead especially the eminent people in their land that has gone to meet their ancestors.
Moreover, they also celebrate another festival called Oduti in their language, this festival is done yearly after their harvest from the farm. This festival is done as a result of their harvest from farm to thank God for their blessing.
1.2.7 TRADITIONAL ADMINISTRATION
Before the advent of the white, Ìjà-Kórò like any other communities has a method of administration. Ozáh is the village head and every family has a representative in the governing council of the town. The youth leader bridges the gap between the Ozáh (village head) and the youth in the communities which make communication for them.
If there is problem, the people in the family will report to the head of the family and if the problem continues, the head of the family must report the matter to the Ozáh (village head).
1.2.8 ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
The major occupation of the Ìjà-Kórò people is farming, they have thought, other minor occupation like hunting, trading for woman. Farming still prove to be their major occupation. They farm yam, banana, echi and ejah.
1.2.9 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
Ìjà-Kórò is located in the southern of Abuja at Bwari District of Gwuara Local Government Area. Ìjà-Kórò belongs to Niger Congo family. They are located along Niger road, from Niger state, it is just a few kilometers to Abuja.
1.3 GENETIC CLASSIFICATION
Genetic classification of a language could be in form of a tree diagram showing the origin of language and how it is genetically to other language. Ìjà-Kórò belongs to the west platoid under the Benue Congo group of Niger Congo language family. This is represented below
|Fig. 1: Genetic Classification of Ìjà-Kórò.
Source: Adapted from Reger Blench (2006).
1.4 SCOPE AND ORGANISATION OF STUDY
This long essay aims at studying questions formation in Ìjà-Kórò, it will cover the general introductions of the study, the sound inventory of the language, the distribution of those sound and transformational generative grammar, this research work is divided into 5 chapters.
Chapter one is the general introduction, presenting the background of the people, the status of the language and the historical background of the people. Also in chapter one, the socio-cultural profile and the genetic classification of the language are examined. The chapter also gives a brief discussion of the theoretical framework to be used in the work and explains the mode of data collection and analysis.
Chapter two discusses, the sound system, distribution of sounds, tonal system, syllable structure and lexical categories, phrase structured rule are also part of this chapter, namely noun, verb, adjectival and prepositional phrase. Sentence types are also discussed.
In chapter three, the topic of the research work will be revealed. Questions formation will be discussed bringing out examples from Ìjà-Kórò language.
Chapter four will be extension of the transformational generative processes (relativization, and focus construction). Chapter five contains the conclusion, summary, recommendation and reference.
1.5 DATA COLLECTION
The data collection for the research work was collected through the help of language helper (informant method) with the use of the “Ibadan world list of 400 basic items” (400 words list). It also used the frame technique. This is a template that shows different structural position which a word can occur in, it goes beyond looking at words in isolation. It was used to get the relevant information that cannot be gotten by means of lexical items only. The information concerning the informant in this research is given below.
NAME: MR. IBRAHIM GATA
ADDRESS: ABUJA SOUTH ALONG NIGER ROAD
LANGUAGE SPOKEN: ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ, HAUSA, GWARI AND ENGLISH
YEARS LIVED IN ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ: 22 YEARS
1.6 REVIEW OF THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The theoretical framework that will be adopted in this research work is Government and Binding theory that operates through the modules of grammar, x-bar, theta, case, control, Binding
. This theory will be used in analyzing question formation in Ìjà-Kórò language.
Haegeman (1994:3) defined (Government and Binding theory as a theory of universal grammar which is the system of all principle that are common to all human languages. Government and binding theory is a radical revision of Chomsky’s earlier theories in (1981) and was later revised in minimalist programme for theories in (1993).
Henceforth, Government and Binding theory, is a theory of syntax in the tradition of transformational grammar developed by Chomsky (1981). Government and Binding theory is a more advanced theory of universal Grammar. Government and Binding theory greatly eliminates proliferation of transformational rules like, affix hopping, passivizational, question formation and verb number agreement. It must be noted that of all numerous transformational rule we have under transformational grammar only the movement rule i.e. move-a is retained in the new Government and Binding theory.
In the current Government and binding frame work, it distinguished between the two the types of categories of syntax. We have
- Lexical categories
- Functional categories
Lexical categories in any human language include Noun, Verb, Adjective and preposition.
Functional categories include elements like, complimentizer, tense, inflectional, determinant, focus and agreement.
Since the Government and binding theory is a modular deductive theory of grammar, it has some sub-theories with which transformation operate. The sub-theories do not operate in isolation. They are:
- X- bar theory
- Theta (Ө) theory
- Case theory
- Control theory
- Binding theory
- Bounding theory
- Government theory
|S – Structure|
X – bar theory Projection Principle
Move $ (bounding)
Ө –theory (Ө criterion)
Case theory (case flter)
ECP Control Binding
Modules of Grammar
(Adapted from Sell (1975) and Cook (1988))
1.6.1 X-BAR THEORY
X-bar theory, according to Horrocks (1987:101) provides principles for the projection of phrasal categories form lexical categories in the form of general schemata, x-theory makes expiate the notion head of a phrase.
X-theory assumes a distinction between the lexical and non-lexical categories, where the lexical categories are based on the features Noun, Verb, Adjective and preposition. The noun – lexical categories includes, complementizer inflectional and later tense and agreement, element and modals, Chomsky (1986:13)
XP represent any phrasal category e.g NP, VP, AP, PP. Below is a diagram that illustrate, e.g
1.6.2 THETA (Ө) THEORY
Yusuf (1998:24) talked about Theta criterion Ө criterion states that each argument bears one and only one Ө role and each Ө is assigned to one and only one argument. The commonly expressed role are agent, theme, instrument locative (goal, source, direction) and a few more participants are assigned these roles in the D-structure.
The verb or preposition, depending on its meaning assigns Ө role to its complements while the VP assigned role are called “External Ө roles”
1.6.3 CASE THEORY
Case has to do primarily with the forms that Np take in different syntactic environment. Yusuf(1998:26). In the government and binding theory, these cases are said to be assigned under government as follow,
According to Yusuf (1998:28) case theory are :
- Nominative is assigned by tense
- Accusative is assigned by verb
- Oblique is assigned by preposition e.g
Shola INFL bought a box in the school
Nominative case Accusative case Oblique case
1.6.4 BINDING THEORY
Chomsky (1981:108) says binding theory is one of the most important constructs in the system and it is concerned primarily with the conditions under which NPs in the same sentence. NPs that are argument are assumed to fall into one of the three categories
- Referential expressions
Anaphors are NPs whose reference is necessarily determined internally and which cannot or have independent reference. Reflexive and reciprocal pronouns in English language fall into this class.
Pronominal are Ns that lack specific lexical content and have only the features, person, number, gender and case. They may either refer to individual independently or co-refer to the individuals already named in a given sentence
Referential expressions are Nps with lexical heads which potentially refer to something. Referential expression is also known as R- expression is and they are Nps with lexical ability to refer to something.
Keywords: ASPECTS OF QUESTION FORMATION IN ÌJÀ-KÓRÒ
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