PROJECT TOPIC : ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS CAREER CHOICE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ESAN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE
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This study, ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS CAREER CHOICE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ESAN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords: career choice of secondary school, parents toward career choice
Background of Study
In carrying out a study of this nature, one would need to look back at previous work done on the topic to see if the present study is in conscience with them or if who made attempts at similar studies have concerned themselves with the performance or achievement of secondary school rather than career choice of students and parental attitudes.
This literature review is specifically aimed at finding out attitude of parents on the career choice of secondary school students. A career is a lifelong process which is other words, is a day to day affair. To make a choice of career is not an easy process (Ipaye, 1986). Erickson 91968) proposed that career choice is perhaps the major decision leading to a sense of identity. In choosing a particular career, the student have profound influence in shaping his or her life (Weber, 1975, Nwonwale, 1982) further noted that when a child talks of the type of career he wants, he or she seems to be unwittingly talking about the type of person he wants to become.
In the process of making a career choice, some careers are sought and others are rejected undoubtedly, certain factors are instrumental to the choice or rejection of some careers. The works of Nwamann (1982) states that often there is conflict between Nigerian students, their countries and the specific types of occupation for which the youths should be preparing. Some other theories of vocational psychology have suggested that parents have influence on their children aspirations expectations and maturity Ginzderg et al (1951).
The choice of career influences almost every aspect of a person’s life. It changes the individual’s values, ideas and standards such as socio-economic status. The choice of career therefore determines his satisfaction and success in life.
Olayinke (1973) and Ogunlade (1973) wrote that a person’s occupation always play an important role in his total life adjustment.
Century referenced the series of job and position by which one enhanced one’s money it tended to look only at the past.
As the idea of personal choice and self-direction picks up in the 21st century, aided by the power of the internet and the acceptance of people having multiple kinds of work, the idea of a career is shifting from a closed set of achievements, like a phonological resource of past jobs, to a defined set of pursuits performed. In its broadest sense, career refers to an individual’s works and life roles over their life span.
In the relatively static societies before modernism, many workers would often inherent or take up a single life long position (a place or role in the work force) and the concept of unfolding career had little or no meaning.
With the spread during the enlightenment of individualist self-betterment, career becomes possible if not expected.
Career assessment can help individuals identify and better articulate their unique interests, value and skills. Career assessments are therefore tests that came in a variety of forms and rely on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Career counsellors’ executive coaches, career development centres often administer career assessments to help individuals focus their search on career that closely match their unique personal profile.
Career counselling advisers assess people’s interest, personality, values and skills and also help them explore career options and research graduate and professional assistance in exploration and decision making task related to choosing a major or occupation, transitioning into the word of work or further professional training. The field is vast and includes career placement, career planning, learning strategies and student development.
By the late 20th century, a plethora of choice especially in the range of potential professional and more wide spread education allowed it to become fashionable to plan (or design) a career. In this respect the careers of the career counsellor and of the career adviser have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th or early 21st centuries to have dual or multiple careers, either sequentially or concurrently. Thus professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this ship in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend generally and more specifically among the creative class.
According to Jordan (1941) “one the basic laws of attitude; is that the first step i.e. attitude change is a high level of awareness when you begin to learn more about the community or the people or the thing that you have a negative attitudes about, (the more you learn), the easier it is to change your attitudes into a positive attitude.
The above definition of attitude by Jordan, a deaf principles of Gallandet university summaries the concept of attitude, both in its mentalist view or its behaviourist view it clearly indicates that attitudes is innate in all living being but remain in its initial stage until stimulated and becomes responsive in a more negative or positive way to any object or situation.
In line with this view, Omibkun (1996) posits that attitudes are inherently endowed in all human beings but remain dormant until they are stimulated. Perhaps this forms the basis of Kapangbanis assertion (1996) that attitude is the state of readiness or tendency to act or react to a certain stimuli and become responsive in a more negative or positive way to any object or situations.
Besides, Jordan’s definition reveals three fundamental stages of attitudinal manifestations in man. First, the inertia stages, second the stimulation stage and third, the responses stage.
The inetia stage is the stage when the man exhibits nonchalant attitudes towards the object or situation and thus. The response stage involves actual expression of changed attitude whether (negative or positive) towards the object or the situation.
Relaying this to the discourse, the attitude of parents towards the career choice of secondary school students in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo state has passed from the initial stage to the stimulation state and to the response stage.
Attitude as defined by the Dictionary is the way that you think and feel about somebody or something, the way that you behave towards somebody or something that shows how you think and feel. But in this discourse, attitude is confined to the way somebody thinks and feel about career choice of their children which in turns goes to affect the child positively.
Some persons adopt the attitude of “I” support them in whatever they decide they want to do, others take a much more direct (controlling) approach, which sounds either like “I don’t want them to make the same mistakes I made or they need to do something practical”.
These, David Montross view as two ends of a continuum. On the one end are parents who take a completely hands off approach, believing incorrectly, that their kids either don’t want or need their assistance. Every student on this subjects has found just the opposite to be true. When asked whose assistance they must want and need regarding career decisions, the parents as their to chose before guidance counsellors, career planning professional or their peers. Taking the hands off approach is planed for a number of reason. Not only do kids want help from their parents, parents are in a very good position to provide help, if done correctly.
They know their children better than just about anyone else; know, their likes and dislikes their skills and abilities other interest not taking advantage of all that knowledge would be a shame.
On other end of the continuum, are the parents who are overly involved in their kids career decisions. They try, most often unsuccessfully and sometimes disastrously to impose their values and views of the work world on their kids. Many are well intentioned.
A true story that come to my attention in this regard is worth mentioning stated David Montress.
A young woman was conceived by her father to pursue a career as a chemist, as he had been, she did not really want to be a chemist but was intelligent enough to do well academically in that field. She was never happy; however, in this career field, as it met none of her own deepest values and tapped few of her real interests. She eventually had a breakdown due to the stress related to a poor career choice. Her father, with all good intentions, thought he was being helped by “guiding” his daughter into what for him had been a challenging, exciting and very rewarding career field. Although, not all such case do have a dramatic sad end.
We could see from the above that a head off is not a good approach and being too involved is not either. However, Parents should influence their children on career choice by playing some good roles which would yield positive results and articulate the child’s potentials.
The choice of career and the attitude of parents depend on the parental background, occupation, influences, gender differences, parents attitude towards career choice of secondary school students is affected adversely by low socio-economic status, some parents make career choice for their children without considering the child’s own personal interest or ability and the choice of career of a child has a great influence on the individual personality. The choice of career therefore determines the child satisfaction and success in life.
In some family’s parent has a goal to raise a a choice of graduate even before given birth to their children forgetting that this children have their own destiny to live and when some try to please their parents they end up unhappy, unjustified and unsatisfied because it Is not their choice of career also when the fall in the process the blame is to the parent.
Statement of the Problem
Over the years, the under achievement and total failure of students in tertiary institutions today is on the increase. This coupled with inability of incompetent educationist to really provide their worth in addressing problem relating to their field. There has been high cases of students carrying various course over in higher institution of learning and there are cases of mass failure and withdrawal from school by most students who where forced by their parents or guidance to study certain course that they are not capable of studying.
Also, there are some students who may do well in their courses despite being forced by their parents because of their high level of intelligence but may not yield satisfaction or self-fulfilment in it. They will never enjoy that field of study because their mind, interest and value is not in it.
This study is designed to help parents understand that it is not good to influence students on career choice but should guide them on how to make good career choice by filling them possible ability of job opportunity giving them the advantage and disadvantage and leaving them to make their choice of career.
Purpose of the Study
This study is designed primarily to examine the attitude of parents and the effect of parental background on the career choice of students in the secondary school in Esan West Local government Area of Edo State.
The following are the purpose of the study to guide the researcher:
- To find out the influence of academic background of parents on career choice of secondary school students
- To investigate the relationship between the parents socio-economic status and the students choice of career
- To investigate the difference between the rural and urban dichotomy of parents and the student choice of career.
- To find out the influence of parental involvement in career choice of secondary school students
In attempting to find solution to the attitude of parent towards career choice of secondary school student in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, this research work will ask the following questions:
- Is there any influence of academic background of parents on career choice of secondary school students?
- Is there any relationship between the parent socio-economic status and the students choice of career?
- Is there any difference between rural and urban dichotomy of parents and the students choice of career?
- Is there any influence of over involvement of parents and the career choice of secondary school students?
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant relationship between academic background of parents on career choice of secondary school students
- There is no significant relationship between the parents socio-economic status and the students choice of career
- There is no significant differences between the rural and urban dichotomy of parents and the students choice of career
- There is no significant influence of parents on the career choice of secondary school students
Significance of the Study
This study will be of great significant to the government, parent, students and the community at large.
The findings of this study will indisputably guide the government and the school to know that the establishment of counselling department or unit is necessary in search of a good career for students in secondary school and thereby using career assessment in matching students with their abilities.
It is also hoped that the outcome of this study will help the parents to know that over involvement and hands-off approach as regards career choice of secondary school students will not help matters but rather some specific roles alongside their children’s area of interest will be off help.
This findings will also help the students to know that it is important to match their career with their interests and abilities through self-evaluation and knowledge.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study concentrated particularly on the career choice of students and parental attitude and influence in Esan West Local Government Area Edo state. It is delimited to Ruekpen town, Ujemen town, delimited to Iruekpen town, Ujamen town, ihumudumu town, Eguere town and Irrue town.
Operational Definition of Terms
Career: this is the totality of work one does in his or her life time. It is the choice of occupation.
Occupation: this simply implies an individuals means of livelihood or an individuals mains source of earning a living. This includes his job, employment, business, traders or handwork.
Parental Background: means social background of parents, people aroused him and his general environments.
Socio-Economic Status: Hornley (1974) defined status as a person’s legal social or professional position in relation to others.