PROJECT TOPIC : ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS HIV/AIDS COUNSELLING IN WARRI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE
CHAPTERS: Chapter 1 – 5
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This study, ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS HIV/AIDS COUNSELLING IN WARRI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords: hiv/aids counselling, secondary school students towards hiv/aids
1.1 Background of the Study
In the last 20 years, Aids (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) has killed over 25 million people, since it was first recognized in 1981 and thus making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. AIDS is a fatal disease without a cure and it is a disease that responds to little treatment.
It is acquired which means that it is not passed down from generation to generation through a person gene. AIDS is a disease that attacks the immune system in the body. It is a system in the body that produces white blood cells in order to fight diseases.
According to Gong and Rudniick (1987), Aids is a condition which is caused by HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus) which was first reported in the last spring of 1981by Michael Gotieb and four of his colleague at the University of California, School of Medicine Los Angeles, United State of American.
According to these authors, the discovery was made among five homosexuals, since then there has been massive spread of HIV among people of all ages, races, countries as well as continents. In 1983, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first discovered by a French Cancer Specialists Luc Montagros along with other scientists, at the Pasteur Institution in Paris. Since then, cases have been reported with reasons of promiscuity of sexually active people during the 1980s and the sharing of intravenous hypodermic needles and syringes by drug users.
The high incidence of HIV/AIDS since it was discovered has been widely reported among secondary school students. US AIDS (2000) reported categorically that half of newly HIV infected persons who numbers about 15,000-16,000 per day were aged 15-24 years (largely adolescent in senior secondary classes). Despite the high incidence of the disease among youths, the attitude of students toward HIV/AIDS over the years has been negative.
According to Hamalaine and Keinen-Ken (1990) stated that young people despite their good HIV/AIDS knowledge they still underestimate their own risk of becoming infected with such virus HIV/AIDS. Adolescents believe themselves to be less promiscuous than average (Abrams, 1990) and they believe that their sexual behaviour and their partner are responsible (that is being in a relationship for a very long time with their partner).
In the same view, Woodluck (1992) explained that some adolescents do not trust the information they get from the mass media and believe that the risk of infection is being exaggerated compared to other risks of life.
The apparent poor behaviour of students towards HIV/AIDS counsellor is further complicated by some families which they no longer discuss sexual issues with their children to avoid them from being more promiscuous. Religious organisations and community activists who preach chastity, education and abstinence only political leaders would not release available resources to match the magnitude of the problem. All these constitute to the different attitude of youths towards the source of HIV/AIDS counselling and it’s transmission in the entire world.
Also, on the issue of sexuality, the Nigeria based “project” for human development has opined that teaching sex education in schools will help the youths in sex. Moreover, it is not good at a tender age because it could be dangerous. The organisation further stated that “sex education is good within the family but not in the school, it is alien to our people and can destroy our nation” (vanguard, 2002).
It is therefore clear, that this high level of ignorance and attitude towards HIV/AIDS counselling and other related issues must be controlled in our community, states and our nations at large should work hand in hand. This solution shall be urgently needed especially the secondary school students who are mainly adolescents and considered as a vulnerable group. In other words, the present epidemic scourge and poor attitude of students calls for awareness.
Through counselling the students will make a wise decision and choose about their personal character and development as well as their behaviour change.
Despite this, the knowledge of HIV/AIDS in sub-Sahara Africa is still very low. Generally, women are less informed about HIV than men in both Urban and Rural Areas. It means the case of ten countries where one out of two adults is infected. Although, several studies have assessed HIV/AIDS, knowledge, attitude and practice in different part of Nigeria, most of the students were conducted in health facilities. There is a dept of information regarding residents or rural communities particularly in northern Nigeria.
In a similar study conducted by United State Agency for International Development ( US AIDS, 2000) in four African countries of Botswana, Cameroun, Guinea and South Africa. It was found out that there was positive attitude towards preventive measures against HIV/AIDS in the absence of an effective vaccine and cure, Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) consisting of minimum of pre and post test counselling and testing can be use as an anti-retroviral treatment. Another role of VCT is the potential in the prevention of mother to the child transmission of HIV through the use of anti-retroviral drugs and modifications of infant feeding practice, without these interventions.
The transmission of mother to child usually occurs in 21-32% of HIV positive pregnancies. On testing and counselling Batley, Spratt, Stepherded, Rauman and Mehendale carry out a study in India on HIV testing and counselling both men and women attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. A total of 1.62% men tested negative in the study. They agreed to return in three months interval to report the HIV testing and counselling, at the end of the study, the result showed that the level of consistence use of condom with commercial sex workers increased proportionately with time.
Although, research was not carried out in Warri South Local Government Area, efforts will be geared towards refocusing the findings in this work. This research is therefore talking about the nature of AIDS infection since young people is no more sexually active at young age than those in the previous generation. The need for counselling those adolescents cannot be over stressed but, in order for them to benefit from counselling depend on the level of knowledge of the issues at stake and one’s attitude towards them. Hence, there is need for this research to determine the attitude of student towards HIV/AIDS counselling.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The level of awareness of HIV/AIDS reported in other studies is high but it is widely source, that Nigeria youth demonstrated a poor attitude towards HIV/AIDS counselling. this brought about the fact that while the spread of the virus may be slowly among other members of the global community, increase in the incidence of disease appears to be normal among youths. And unless there is a global commitment to change their attitude, this contagious disease may be too difficult to control in the nearest future.
Despite students’ negative attitude which account for the spread of the disease among adolescents and youths in schools, this problem has been identified and seem relevant in the course of the study.
1.3 Research Question
- What is the level of awareness of students on HIV/AIDS?
- What attitude does secondary school students have towards HIV/AIDS counselling?
- What is the effect of negligence on HIV/AIDS counselling on secondary school students?
- What role does communication play in the control of HIV/AIDS?
1.4 Research Hypothesis
The following hypotheses were tested for the study:
- There is no significant relationship between the awareness of the virus and the attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS counselling.
- There is no significant relationship between negative attitude of secondary school students towards HIV/AIDS counselling
- There is no significant relationship between the role of the counsellor in counselling the disease and students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS counselling.
- There is no significant relationship between the role of communication through counselling and controlling the disease and students attitude towards HIV/AIDS.
1.5 Purpose of the Study
HIV/AIDS is a fatal disease that has gradually spread in the whole of Nigeria, however, counselling which has been developed to help in changing adolescents (youths) attitude and behaviour in order to curtail the disease.
Therefore, the purpose of the study is to generate findings to the following:
- The relationship between the awareness of HIV/AIDS and attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS counselling
- The role of counsellor in counselling the disease and students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS counselling.
- The role of communication through counselling in controlling the disease and students’ attitude towards it.
1.6 Significance of the Study
HIV/AIDS counselling emphasis on the individual responsibility for changing behaviour and essentially preventive measures regarding to causes, treatment, symptoms, prevention spread sexually and drug use as well as body fluid and tissue donation.
Unfortunately, the youth especially secondary school students happen to be the major victims of this infection and its’ spread. This is as a result of their risky behaviour and the influence of their peer group.
On issue relating to HIV/AIDS, proper guidance and counselling could prevent them from being victims and consequently clarifying and providing them with information regarding the control treatment procedure of the infections.
Therefore, findings arising from this work would provide necessary information to guild counsellors and teachers in the skills necessary in assisting students in developing better attitude towards HIV/AIDS counselling.
Also having completed this study will help to increase the awareness of youths on the link between personal behaviour and their personal risk of contacting the disease. At this stage, parents play a paramount role in ensuring that their words are not only learnt but also acquire worthwhile behaviour.
The research findings will therefore be of immerse benefits to parents by providing them with necessary information on peer guidance and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS counselling to ensure the protection or their wards against the scourge.
Finally, this research findings will gear the government and academic institution in HIV/AIDS control efforts and the provision of the necessary machinery in developing posture attitude towards HIV/AIDS counselling.
1.7 Scope of Study
The scope of this study is to find out the attitude of secondary school students towards HIV/AIDS counselling in schools. This is therefore delimited in any selected secondary school in Warri south local government area of delta state.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Having known the fact that deliberate efforts were made to investigate the study in an atmosphere free from obstacles, the following militating factors were encountered:
A major constraint to this study is the unavailability of time as the research was carried out simultaneously with academic lectures.
Secondly, the distance and cost of money from one school to another to administer the questionnaire posed a huge financial problem to the researcher.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
- 1.Attitude: a way of thinking and feeling about someone, something and behaviour towards those things.
- 2.Virus: any of various poisonous elements smaller than bacteria causing the spread of infection disease.
HIV/AIDS: this is a virus that attacks the human white blood cells and weakens the immune system, while the later is a lethal condition caused by the HIV/AIDS virus that damages the immune system.