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This study, ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS VOCATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE IN ETHIOPE EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: vocational and educational guidance, attitude of secondary school students




1.1 Background of the Study

Guidance is derived from the word “guide” which means to direct, to lead and to facilitate a course of action. It is a programme of services designed to assist individuals understand their problems and also to find a lasting solution to them. It is a professional field which has a broad range of activities, programmes and services geared towards assisting individuals to understand themselves, their school environment and their world and also to develop adequate capacity for making wise choices and decisions (Eyo and Esuong, 2010).

Guidance is a programme on which a guild is to be provided by someone who is professionally trained to do so. These provisions would be made in relation to the individual’s educational, social, moral, emotional and health. According to the UNESCO module on guidance and counselling (2000a), guidance is a programme of services to individuals based on their needs and the influence of environmental factors. To Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004), the term ‘guidance’ has been coined from the word ‘guild’ which means to direct one on an issue or programme, ‘enlighten’ or assist and to lead someone to know alternatives of what to do in relation to a given situation that demands decision making. They state further that one can only be guided by someone who is knowledgeable or someone who is mature and quite familiar with what to do in such given circumstances which require assistance.

According to Egbule (2002), the conceptual development of guidance and counselling as a professional services started in the 20th century as a result of the cultural and ideological movement which provides enough impetus for the broadening and secularization of guidance functions. However, prior to this time, there was a practice of guidance and counselling in the traditional level by a group of quasi-counsellors. These quasi-counsellors according to Egbule (2002) are: philosophers, priests, prophets, elders in the society and parents. The techniques these quasi-counsellors used in rendering guidance services to individuals is mainly advice giving. Although, this technique yielded its expected result (as most of the problems put before the quasi-counsellors were resolved), it will be partial not to mention its associated problems.

For example, Egbule in Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004) enumerated the following as limitations of traditional (quasi counselling) counselling practice:

  1. Traditional counselling is dominated by large number of untrained counsellors who based their practice on biased personal experience and subjectivity.
  2. The activities of traditional counsellors are often limited to advice giving leaving behind other significant guidance functions. This approach of advice giving by traditional counsellors is usually directive and authoritative in nature. This is very unethical to professional counselling.
  3. Traditional counselling lacks objectivity in its assessment and treatment procedures in traditional counselling and it does not utilize any assessment material. This makes it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of resolving individual’s problem.
  4. It is always difficult for the client to apply the principles of traditional counselling in resolving his problem. This is because solutions are often sought to the client’s problem by the traditional counsellor through mysterious method. This makes it impossible for the client to apply any principles to solve similar problems in the future without counsellors.
  5. The practice of traditional counselling in a modern world is out of touch with reality. It has become impossible to use traditional counselling approaches to resolve educational, vocational and personal social problems resulting from the complexities of the modern society, economic, political, educational, and technological changes.

In assessing the future of guidance and counselling in Nigeria, Aluede (2011) has this to say:

Aluede, Egbule and Okorodudu (1988, as cited in Aluede, 2000) had observed that guidance and counselling services are relatively new educational delivery services in Nigeria’s educational system, one may today be tempted to think differently because, any child born in 1959, the year guidance and counselling is known to have begun in Nigeria (Ipaye, 1983, as cited in Aluede, McEachem and Kenny, in press), would no longer be regarded as an adolescent or a youth. He/she could even be a grandparent, who would be full of all maturity and experience to be expected to play a very vital role in the society.

Several events led to the institutionalization of guidance and counselling in Nigerian school system. Most prominent was the effort of a group of catholic nuns at the St. Theresa’s college, Oke-Ado, Ibadan. These catholic nuns according to Aluede, (2000) and Iwuama, (1991) developed a career workshop for all the School’s graduating students during the 1959 academic session, especially in the area of subject selection and job search. According to Ipaye (1983), a major outcome of the workshop was the distribution of the much needed career information that enabled 54 out of 60 graduating students to gain full employment upon heir graduation.

Another event that was instrumental to the development of modern guidance in Nigeria is the workshop on guidance and counselling held at the comprehensive high school, Aiyetoro in 1963 where Mr. R. O. Rees delivered a paper titled “the role of the guidance counsellor in a comprehensive high school”. So was the book written by Mr. C. I. Berepiki titled “an approach to guidance in school”. This book inspired the federal government of Nigeria to develop a workshop on guidance and counselling in schools. Through these efforts, the federal government was able to appreciate the role guidance and counselling needed to play in the nation’s overall development that later motivated the federal ministry of education to appoint Mr. C. I. Berepiki to take full charge of the coordination of school guidance and counselling services in Nigeria’s school system (Odebunmi, 1985).

There is agreement among experts that there are three major components of guidance and counselling, these component according to UNESCO module (2000a) are: educational, vocational, and personal social guidance.

Educational Guidance: educational guidance can be referred to as that part of the guidance programme given to students to enable them do well in school. It is a service offered to the students by the school guidance counsellor in the school system. Through educational guidance, students are individually or as a group provided with information and assistance to help them function more effectively in the school system (Egbule, 2002).

Vocational Guidance: vocational guidance is simply an aspect of the entire guidance programme given to the students or individuals in the school system to enable them make appropriate choices in their vocation. Egbule (2002) quoting Supper (1957) states that vocational guidance is the process of helping a person develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of himself and of his role in the world of work, to test this concept against reality and to convert it into reality, with satisfaction to himself, and to benefits to the society.

Personal Social Guidance: This aspect of the guidance programme that focuses on the individual’s socio-personal problems. According to Egbule (2002), counselling psychologists are not only interested in the individual’s educational and vocational adjustment, also in their personal-social and psychological adjustment.

Under these three major area of guidance as Denga (2001) posited, there are several guidance and counselling services such as appraisal, information, placement, orientation, evaluation, referral, and follow-up.

Appraisal Service: according to Egbule, in Okobiah and Okorodudu (2004), appraisal service is a testing programme which involves the collection, analysis and application of a series of objectives and subjective personal psychological data for the purpose of understanding individuals and assisting them to understand their abilities, interest and disabilities. Students need to know how to appraise themselves whether or not they are fulfilled in their chosen course or else see a counsellor for appraisal.

Information Services: information is not stable, there are changes from time to time, and the students need to be updated too. According to Bamisaye (2003), information is very vital because it can be used to create new realities as the situation may warrant. Information about jobs, qualifications, requirement, remuneration, hazard, working time, training opportunities, age factors, condition of services and the general working environment should have been made available to salvage the students from moving from one job to the other without fulfilment.

Placement Services: according to Gashinde (1991), this is a crucial function. The guidance counsellor should be involved in the selection and placement of students in the different subjects/classes. According to Egbule (2002), placement means the assistance given to students in making appropriate choices of school subjects and in making transition from one school level to the other, and from school to employment.

Orientation Service: orientation service according to Egbule (1993) is techniques of educational service designed and organized to help new students in the school system to adjust to their new environment through group procedures. New students need to be helped in adjusting to the school environment so as to make the best use of the opportunities before them.

Referral Service: at time, students’ problems may prove difficult that it will require the guidance counsellor to send him/her to the appropriate quarters, so as not influence others with the problem. Referral service simply implies directing clients to other professionals who are in a position and are more competent in resolving the client’s problem (Egbule, 2002).

Follow-Up Service: according to Aluede (2011), follow-up service is very important; it can mean monitoring the “drop out of school” so that they do not constitute social menace. Some students that are advised to drop out of school system because of one reason or the other should be adequately monitored by the counsellor in order to still be useful to themselves, their community and the nation at large. They can still be creative and innovative if they are properly guided.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The three aspects of guidance; educational, vocational and personal-social guidance is being carried out in the school system using a number of techniques. These techniques include study habit induction, orientation, excursion, career day, etc. during such programmes, it is expected that the students will participate to the fullest and benefit from such opportunities. However, while some attends, a good number of the students fail to attend. Even among the attendants, a good number of them fail to participate actively. This passiveness could be understood to mean that the students may not be interested in such programme. These phenomenon induce the researcher into choosing this topic as it is believed that the success of any programme in school lies on the students’ attitude towards such a programme. If this may be the true, what then is the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance in Ethiope East Local government area of Delta State?

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions shall guide the study:

  1. Are students interested in orientation exercise in secondary schools?
  2. To what extent do students participate in study habit induction in secondary schools?
  3. Do students take part in career day programme in secondary schools?
  4. Do students participate in excursion in secondary schools?
  5. Do students participate in Old Students Association Day in secondary schools?

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance in Ethiope East local government area of delta state.

The study will seek to investigate the following:

  1. Students’ interest in orientation exercise in secondary schools
  2. The extent of students’ participation in study habit induction in secondary schools
  3. Students’ participation in career day in secondary schools
  4. The students’ participation in excursion in secondary schools
  5. The students participation in Old Students Association Day

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will be of a great benefit to parents, teachers, policy makers, school counsellors, educational administrators, local communities and school principals.

The study will provide parents with useful information about their children in order to know how best to guild them through their life course.

The study will also provide teachers with information about vocational and educational guidance.

The study will equally provide vital information to policy makers on how best to formulate guidance and counselling policies.

This study will provide school counsellors with useful information about the guidance programmes and on how best to provide educational and vocational guidance in order to sustain the interest of the students thereby enhancing their attitude towards vocational and educational guidance.

The study will provide useful information to school administrators about the usefulness of vocational and educational guidance in order to make adequate fund available for the funding of the guidance and counselling programme.

Additionally, the study will help the local community to appreciate the contribution of guidance and counselling towards the development of the nation’s economy.

Lastly, the study will enable school principals to be aware of their roles in the school guidance programmes so that they can assist the school counsellor in realizing the goals and objectives of the school guidance programme.

1.6 Scope/Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers the attitude of secondary school students towards vocational and educational guidance. The study is limited to 5 out of 24 secondary schools in Ethiope east local government area of Delta state.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Attitude: this is the thought or feeling that makes individuals to act or behave as if they like or dislike something.

Secondary School Students: These are individuals studying in a school meant for young people between the ages of 11 to 16 years.

Vocational Guidance: This is the process of giving students some information about their abilities and the needs of the labour markets so as to enable them make appropriate decisions and occupational choices.

Educational Guidance: This is the helping of persons to do better in their studies and to select courses and schools that will be fitted to their tastes and abilities.

Local Government Area: This is an administrative division of a country that the third tier of government is responsible for.

Keywords: vocational and educational guidance, attitude of secondary school students

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