PROJECT TOPIC : CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF HIV/AIDS AMONG THE YOUTH A CASE STUDY OF KYANGWALI REFUGEE CAMP – HOIMA DISTRICT
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Keywords: youth in kyangwali refugee camp, hiv/aids among the youth
This study examines the effects of HIV/AIDS among the youth in Kyangwali Refugee Camp. It seeks to find out how the spread of HIV/AIDS among the youth is being addressed in Kyangwali Refugee Camp. HIV/AIDS is said to have become a worldwide problem. It has created tension and threatened the existence of human species, it has caused too much financial losses in abid to destroy, control, treat or even prevent it. In many states, HIV/AIDS did not occur until 1980s.
At present, all states in the world have cases of HIV/AIDS prevalence however the level of contraction differs. The African population is said to be having the vast majority of the worlds HIV/AIDS population.
In the Ugandan context, the Ugandan National Youth Policy 2011 and 2004 as compiled by the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development, defines the youth as all young persons; fameless and male aged 12 to 30 years. This period is of great emotional, physical and psychological changes that require societal support for a safe passage from adolescent to full adulthood.
HIV/AIDS this is known as a common disease caused by virus that affects the body and weakens the functions within the body, the DNA is affected and resistance to fight against diseases is reduced since the red blood cells are affected.
HIV simply means human immune virus and AIDS means acquired immune Deficiency Symdrome.
A research survey was conducted in Kyangwali Refugees Camp in Hoima District.
HIV status in the world
HIV/AIDS is a global challenge which has threatened the existence of humans by the year
1980’s, HIV had not yet submerged the whole world but todate, all countries, continents have cases of HIV/AIDS (WHO 2001).
The HIV infection rate in Swaziland is unprecedented and the highest in the world at 26.1% of all adults and at over 50% of adults in their 20s which has stopped possible economic and social progress, and is at a point where it endangers the existence of it’s society as a whole. The United Nations Development Programme has written that if the expansion continues un abated, the longer term existence of Swaziland as a country will be seriously threatened.
Swaziland’s HIV epidemic has reduced life expectancy to only 32 years as of 2009 which is the lowest in the world by six years. And the next highest being 38 years for currently causes 61% of all deaths in the country with an unmatched crude death rate of 30 per 1,000 people per year, about 2% of Swaziland’s total population dies of HIV/AIDS every year.
HIV status in Africa
Most of HIV infections found in South Africa are HIV-1, the world’s most common HIV infection which is the second home for HIV and the first cases of HIV were reported in Zimbabwe by the year 1985. West Africa was also affected where by the year 1985 cases of HIV were reported in Cote Ivory, Benin and Mali, Nigeria, Burkinafaso, Ghana, Cameroon, Senegal and Liberia followed in 1980. Sierraleonne, Togo and Niger in 1987: Mauritania in 1988; The Gambia, Guinea –Bissau, and Guinea in 1989 and finally Cape Verde in 1990.
HIV prevalence in west Africa is lowest in (HAD, Niger, Mali, Mauritania and highest in Burkina Faso. Cote Di Voire and Nigeria.
Nigeria has the second largest number of people living with HIV in Africa after South Africa. And the main driver of infection is commercial sex, for example in the Ghanaian capital of Accra, 80% of HIV infections in young men had been acquired from women who sell sex. And in Niger, the adult HIV prevalence was 1% by year 2003 yet surveys of sex workers in different regions found HIV infection rate of between 9 and 38%. In the mid 1980s; HIV and AIDS were virtually unheard of in South Africa. It is now the worst affected region in the world.
Some areas if East and Central Africa are beginning to show substantial declines in the prevalence of HIV infection. In the early 1990 13% of Uganda residents were HIV positive, it has dropped to 40% by the end of 2003 and in Kenya prevalence turned from 13.6% in 1997 1998 to 90% in 2002 however data from Burundi, Ethiopia are also hopeful, but HIV prevalence still remain high, however, it is too early to claim that these are permanent reversal as in these countries’ epidemics. Most governments have patterned with WHO and NGO’s to establish education programmes in the mid-1980’s.
These programmes commonly taught the ABC. “Strategy” of HIV prevention, which is a combination of abstinence sexual fidelity to one’s partners and condom use. The efforts of these educational campaigns appear now to be bearing fruit in Uganda, where by awareness of HIV/AIS is demonstrated to over 99% and more than three in five Ugandan s can cite two or more preventative practices, youth are also delaying the age at which sexual intercourse first occurs this so simply because of the fast introduction of AIDS information centres by 1990 to provide HIV testing and counseling services.
HIV status in Kyangwali
According to the research that was recently conducted in Kyangwali about the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS among the youth is that there are approximately 17% of the young people with HIV/AIDS, and sources say they got it from their mothers during birth or after birth.
There are many women or females youth who are affected compared to male youth this so because many women lost their husbands during the war that let to them to became refuges in Uganda, they there for lack enough support and they end up going for almost every man so long as he can provide food and some little money for up keep, the main issue here is poverty.
According to Coburwas, members headed by Benson as the club president deputized by Amini, they say HIV/AIDS has reduced due to the various campaigns they make in the camp by visiting schools, hospital sensitizing atleast some 2% unlike in 2009 is realized in reduction of the spread.
HIV/AIDS is the second killing disease being led by malaria in the whole camp of Kyangwali but efforts have been put to seeing that the spread is reduced which is now the main target of the various organizations like UNHCR, GLIA, AAHI, FRC, ARC all these are fighting the spread through education, sensitization demonstrations and many others.
In Sub- Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is mainly transmitted through heterosexual intercourse. The following are the modes of transmission for example sex or heterosexual is at 90% PMTCT, 8% others 2%, this clearly shows that HIV/AIDS is mainly got through heterosexual intercourse. According to the recent research made by researchers, 33.3 million people in whole world have HIV/AIDS, 1.3 million people in Uganda of those who are tested 20% have HIV/AIDS and 80% are not tested.
According to the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS, 1995) the youth in Uganda contribute significantly to the number of mobidity and mortality cases. Their health problems and needs are of basic nature as well as specific in such issues as sexual and reproductive health, substance/drug abuse and mental health. Many suffer from Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and about 47% of the 1.8 million HIV/AIDS cases are youth, with females being more infected and vulnerable than their male counterparts.
At the global level, almost 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS (WHO, 2006) two thirds 63% of all adults and children with HIV globally live in Sub-Saharan Africa, with its epicenter in South Africa. In many regions of the World, new HIV infections are heavily concentrated among young people 15-24 years of age. Among adults 15 years and older, young people accounted for 40 percent of new HIV infections in 2006 .
Females mainly go for unprotected sex relations with older men due to desires of getting money from them. This therefore put many female youth at a risk of acquiring the disease compared to male youth. Uganda was one of the first countries in the whole world in which AIDS was documented (CDC, 1981) it was indentified in Rakai district, (Serwadda et al, 1985) and from there, it spread in the various parts of the country, by the end of 2008, an estimate of 14 million Africans died from AIDS. And about 14.1 million children have lost one or both parents to the epidemic UNAIDS estimates that globally 33.2 million children and adults are living with the epidemic HIV/AIDS 2.5 million new infections and 2% million death occurred in the year 2007 alone.
There are very many youth in Kyangwali Refugee Camp, youth are highly recognized as very important part of society. Many programmes have been put in the Refugee to improve on the health problems of the youth more especially HIV/AIDS.
Many organizations, different authorities have tried to investigate on the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS among the youth in a refugee camp like Kyangwali, different organizations like
Action Africa help International, with its programmes of reduction in the spread sensitization, GLIA, Great Lake Initiative on AIDS, little Hospice Uganda, UNHCR etc have tried to sensitize and make youth aware of the problem.
There are very many youth in Kyangwali Refugees camp, both females and males. In Kyangwali refugee camp there are youth with HIV/AIDS they are treated favourably where by ARV’S are given to them so as to help them live longer by resisting the infection of other diseases due to body weaknesses, they are being given ARV’S to add on the CD4s in the body so as to resist.
There are different persons responsible with the youth with HIV/AIDS thus to say the counselors at various health centres with in the camp, they offer psychosocial support and others give guidance and counseling to the youth, those affected and those not affected.
There is testing thus voluntary testing and counseling, PMTCT, condom distribution, sensitization, video show in various parts of the camp which shows dangers of HIV/AIDS, ways of spread prevention and central, all these are done in places where youth converge from for example in schools, villages, Health units, markets, counseling centres, youth centres libraries and many others.
There is high spread of HIV/AIDS among the youth aged between 16-25 years, therefore there is need for serious intervention of the stakeholders organizations and block traders in order to reduce or stop the spread of HIV/AIDS among the youth in Kyangwali Refugee Camp.
HIV/AIDS in Kyangwali Refugee Camp is spreading rampantly because youth in different villages, block do not have access to services like sensitization on the spread, sensitization on the importance of a condom and demonstrations on how they can be used effectively to overcome the spread. Many youth in Kyangwali camp fear to ask for condoms or even pick them from the youth centres under the disguise that condoms are not effective, and not give a change to high level of enjoyment.
Many hospitals lack medical requirements for a long time there is lack of youth friendly health services. Lack of relevant health information and negative cultural practices and perceptions accompanied with religious beliefs of not using condoms so as to produce as many children to conquer and fill the world.
Kyangwali as a refugee camp, it has very many people but with inadequate facilities, where by a big number of youth cannot be served at a very required level. For example youth in villages like, Kasanga village, Kyebitaka village, Nyamiganda, Musisa A, Musisa B, Rwenyawawa, Ngurewe do not get adequate services because they are far with big numbers of people and poor transport which discourages people to move when it rains to go and access services.
HIV/AIDS in Kyangwali Refugee Camp is being fought by equipment and training more youth and health workers.
Emphasize on the sensitization is being done and encouraged where by a youth group from the organization of AAHI under a project of GLIA, with the headship of an AIDS focal person, youth workers, medical servants, psychosocial workers or counselors have done a great job and are highly dedicated and whole heartedly looking forward to making HIV/AIDS spread in Kyangwali camp becomes history. This is done through counseling and guidance, peer educating, condom distribution for both males and females (F2’s ) and demonstration, sensitization by talking to the youth, vabancy and using the videos, writing newsletters showing the dangers of HIV/AIDS through drama performance.
More the people have been encouraged to go and test so as they can know their health stands this has made more it effective since today there is voluntary house to use testing and counseling, and this service has been extended to the youth centres within the camp where different entertainments is found which attracts more people.
Special foods have been provided to people with HIV/AIDS to boost their immunity and this is a programme coordinated by different nutritionists within the camp under the control of UNHCR.
HIV/AIDS is being fought by encouraging male circumcision in the camp where by the services have been put in Kyangwali Health Centre IV and Kasunga Health Centre III to reduce on the spread.
It is being fought by encouraging education and supporting youth in schools, this is simply to keep the youth busy in schools and making chances of contraction limited, antenatal clinics have been equipped and production of children in villages has been discouraged so as to ease the work of fighting the spread this so because if a mother is infected when she delivers from the hospital there are less chances of a child acquiring the disease.
There is need to find out the effects of HIV/AIDS in Kyangwali Refugee Camp, HIV/AIDS leads to death where by one’s earthly life stops. HIV/AIDS leads to financial losses since money is used in abid to strengthen one’s body by boosting the immunity, for example ARV’s are sometimes bought at an expensive cost which is an effect.
There is need to find out the effects of HIV/AIDS because there is need to know on how to open up with the situation or the epidemic since it has no care.
1.1 Statement of the problem
According to the recent survey carried out in Kyangwali Refugee Camp former Hoima district, but now Buhaguzi District, the youth are still vulnerable victims of HIV/AIDS. There is high spread of HIV/AIDS among the youth in Kyangwali Refugee Camp. Different organizations like (UNHCR) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Action Africa Help International (AAHI), Medical corps, (IMC) World Health Organizations (WHO) through projects like (GLIA) Great Lakes Initiative on AIDS have tried to provide the necessary requirements like condoms to people, sensitization on the spread of HIV/AIDS and how condoms can be used effectively to overcome or reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. The problem has not been solved because many youth in refugee camps are neglected, therefore they are ignorant about the causes and effects and they are sometimes idle and redundant which leads to temptations. Death will increase among the youth aid other people.ift the youth and other stakeholders do not get to know the effects of HIV/AIDS ,also youth clubs may collapse or even if the effects and causes of HIV/AIDS are not freely exposed to the youth, and this may result into lack of effective participation of youth in development as a result of many deaths caused by HIV/AIDS. It is important therefore to find out the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS among the youth in Kyangwali Refugee Camp.
1.2 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study was to find out what the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS among youth in Kyangwali Refugee Camp are.
1.3 Objectives of the study
- To find out the causes of HIV/AIDS among the youth in kyangwali refugee camp
- To examine the contribution of (NGO’s) within the camp creating awareness on the effects of HIV/AIDS on the youth within Kyangwali Refugee Camp.
- To assess the effectiveness of the organizations that fight the spread of HIV/AIDS within the camp.
- To determine the level of advancement of the youth who are affected from the time of declaration that they are positive to date.
1.4 Research question
- What are the causes of HIV/AIDS among the youth in a refugee camp of Kyangwali.
- How has the existence of different organizations in Kyangwali Refugee Camp assisted in the reduction of the effects of HIV among the youth in refugee camp of Kyangwali. iii) What is the level of advancement of the youth who are affected with HIV/AIDS. iv) What are the effects of HIV/AIDS among the youth in Kyangwali Refugee Camp.
The study was carried out in Kyangwali Refugee Camp, 80km from Hoima Town along Fort Portal Road neighbouring Kibale District, and Lake Albert in the mid western region of Uganda.
- 1.6The scope of the study
The study was conducted in Kyangwali Camp and information was got from different youth working in various health centres for example Kasanga Health Centre III and Rwenyawawa Health Centre IV. Other villages like Mukunyu, Ngurwe, Musisa, and schools like Kyangwali secondary school, Nyamiganda Primary School and same block like block 75, block 97 and block 17 were used to assemble or collect the information.
The study was meant to determine the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS, level of advancement of people living with HIV/AIDS from the time of acquir ing the diseaseto-date among the youth for atleast 12 years and above since this group does not have enough money to sustain themselves, and are without any work.
1.6 Significance of the study
The study will act as a future planning tool for youth in Kyangwali Refugee Camp and the district at large to implement and, equip, health centres especially in villages like Nyamiganda, Nyampindu and help them access other health facilities like medical treatment, condoms PMTCT, VCT, in order to help save those youth affected and those vulnerable.
Parents will benefit from this study by listening to information by the facilitators say those who carry out sensitization in different villages of the camp, they will benefit in controlling their families since PMTCT information is taught and encouraged especially to mothers hence leading to future progress both economic and social spheres of life.
The study will serve as a reference material for schools, and the whole community this is so because colleges, and other tertiary institutions, universities like Makerere will help by reinforcing the existing literature or the youth, in Kyangwali effects and the cause of HIV/AIDS. This therefore will help stakeholders to know the areas of emphasis and the different organizations so as to create efficiency and proper services delivery.
The community will benefit from this study in a way that condom use was taught and demonstrated therefore many people in the community yet get a lifelong public lecture from the youth workers, especially from drama clubs, youth alive members.
This study will also help the researcher with relevant information about the problem, know sensitization and condom distribution among the youth, youth’s attitudes towards receiving condoms.
Though HIV/AIDS is said to be a global challenge, being faced by many people irrespective of gender, sex, race, culture, religion and colour, there is still hope to reduce the rampant spread, causes and effects of HIV/AIDS in Kyangwali Refugee Camp, since the camp is highly populated with a biggest number being the youth, there are very many and more measures put into consideration and authorities of the camp to find rampant spread of the epidemic.
Further information about the chapter can be explained in the next chapter to find out more of the related reviews and variation of the study.