PROJECT TOPIC : CAUSES OF DROPOUT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN UGHELLI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE
CHAPTERS: Chapter 1 – 5
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This study, CAUSES OF DROPOUT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN UGHELLI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords: causes of dropout among secondary school students
Background to the Study
Education, which has rightly been conceived as a preparation for life, is a productive activity and an investment in human resources. A progressive and welfare state (country) would never ignore its indisputable need for socialisation of its masses of which education is considered to be the chief organ for this purpose. Education is an important component of economic and social development and contributes significantly to a country’s progress. It is considered to be the investment in human capital as it builds human capabilities, which is a vital nation-building ingredient. Without spread of literacy, the dream of socio-economic development of the country can never be realized (Abdul, Q.M., Muhammad, A. and Faiza, B., 2004).
According to Abdul etal (2004), Secondary education is an important sub-sector of the entire education system. It varies from country to country. It is the schooling designed for students in the age bracket of 12-16 years who are enrolled in secondary schools. Secondary education is a stage where, a student enters at adolescence, the most crucial state in one’s personality development. It comes at a time when a child is in his/her most impressionable and formative years. At this particular time, the features of future men, women and citizens are beginning to appear and require full encouragement and sympathetic help in the development.
A common feature observed in most developed nations is higher attainment in education than the developing nations. For instance, according to Egwunyenga and Nwadiani (2004), Britain had 98% education attainment, United States of America 89% while Nigeria and Sudan had 59% and 33% respectively as reported by the World Bank (1996) on development indicators. This properly informed the reason the Federal Government is seen to have priority attention to the supply of education in the first two levels (primary and secondary) as reflected in the launched Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme in May 2000. A common feature in the Nigerian educational system in the issue of drop-out. According to Hornby, A.S. (2008), drop-out means a person who leaves school or college before they have finished their studies. It also means one who withdraws or quits from school or a given social group.
The rate at which secondary school students are observed to be leaving school at will to engage in diverse socio-economic activities calls for concern. This is with a view to saving scarce productive resources which would have been put into alternative use from being wasted on those who will not like to complete their school programmes. It has been observed by most school administrators that boys withdraw from school to go into buying and selling while the girls migrate into urban centers in search of daily bread. According to Nwadiani (1998), some parents have preference to menial jobs done by their wards that brings quick monies to solve domestic problems. It is also important to note that besides students dropping from the system, there are those who are observed to dropout within the system. These are students that willfully leave one public school and enter another or from one public school to a private school (Nwakobi 1990).
In Nigeria, about 7.3 million children dropout of school, of which 62% are girls (UNICEF 2004). The same UNICEF report indicates that girls’ primary school completion rate is far behind that of boys, at 76% compared with 85% for boys. This gender gap means that millions more girls than boys are dropping out of school each year. This goes to show that the majority of children not in school are girls. UNICEF (2003) showed a worrisome report from sub-Saharan Africa where the number of girls out of school rose from 20 million in 1990 to 24 million in 2002. The report also indicated that 83% of all girls out of school in the world live in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific. Mohammed (2004) equally reported that a girl may be withdrawn from school if a good marriage prospect arises. Early marriage is a socio-cultural factor that hinders the girl child’s access to school. Some parents, in an attempt to protect their teenage daughters, give them out to wealthy old friends. Some of these girls who attempt to escape from such forced marriages end up in disaster. Efforts should be made to ensure that girls go to school and complete their schooling. According to Egbochuku (2002), efforts made to ensure that adolescent girls who re-enrolled in school are retained with a view to acquiring education will permanently close the door to poverty and ignorance and at the same time open that of prosperity in terms of economic buoyancy, social advancement and civilization. Alika and Egbochuku (2009) found that the socio-economic status of the girls imposes considerable constraints upon their continuing stay in school. In fact, they asserted that a girl’s particular socio-economic inheritance may have a direct and important effect on educational attainment.
Statement of the Problem
It has been noted that drop-out syndrome among secondary school students constitutes gross educational wastage to the country and also, that the victims of the incident are at a loss. The problem of drop-out rate among secondary school students in Nigeria has its untold effects on the life of the individuals and the society in general. It is quite unfortunate that some parents do not allow their children to attend school, who engage them in one form of economic activity or the other.
Recently, high drop-out rate has become a public outcry. As a result of the above problems, the researcher is disturbed and motivated to investigate those causes of drop-out and also proffer solutions to tackle these problems.
The Ughelli South Local Government Area offers adequate curriculum for its students with many academic avenues open and available to students, yet, each year, students drop out of school. Concern in this matter is felt not only for these youngsters, but for the Ughelli South Local Government Area, Delta State, and the nation as a whole. It is the writer’s endeavour to find particular factors or causes relating to students who drop out in the Ughelli South Local Government Area.
Purpose of the Study
This study sought to determine the major causes of school dropout among secondary school students in Ughelli South Local Government Area of Delta State. Specifically, this study was designed to:
- Examine whether poverty causes school dropout among secondary school students in Ughelli South Local Government Area.
- Determine whether poor value orientation among peers cases school dropout.
- Ascertain whether poor school infrastructure is causal to school dropout.
- Determine whether location of school is part of the causes of school dropout.
Significance of the Study
This study has immense implications for Nigerian education. The study will throw more light on the factors responsible students’ dropping out of secondary school in Ughelli South Local Government Area of Delta State with an objective of providing solutions which will go a long way in assisting the concerned or affected area of Delta State, educational institutions and planners, and parents in correcting the anomalies.
The research will also assist the management of secondary schools in Ughelli South Local Government Area to adopt measures that will put an end to, or at least reduce the rate of drop-out among secondary school students in the area.
It is also an attempt to impart upon the youths in Ughelli South Local Government Area the need to appreciate education and flee from social vices such as armed robbery, secret cults etc. which is capable of disrupting their education. There is also a systematic approach in assisting in the development of the secondary schools in the area and also provide assistance to the educational needs of the society, and the needs of the Local Government Area.
The research will therefore, help to determine the necessary conditions that will be made available to divert the attention of the students from dropping out of school at all secondary school levels in Ughelli South Local Government Area and also to encourage them to hold fast to education.
Scope of the Study
This study was designed to determine the major causes of school dropout among secondary school students in Ughelli South Local government Area of Delta State.
Government secondary schools in the area was used for the study.
To guide the study, the following research questions were formulated:
- How does poverty cause school dropout among secondary school students in Ughelli South Local Government Area?
- In what ways do poor value orientation cause school dropout among students?
- How has poor school infrastructure caused school dropout among students?
- How has location of the school contributed to dropout among students?