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Keywords:CIVIL – MILITARY RELATIONS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: CHALLENGES FOR THE NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES
This study examines the CMR in Nigeria and its implications on National Security. There have been various schools of thought worldwide on what constitutes CMR. Various postulations became necessary as the subject helps build cordial relationship between military and civilians toward achieving nations’ security collaborations and attainments. The term found it relevance since the end of Second World War. The paradigm shift from Attritionists’ Concepts Warfare to Manouvriest Approach to Warfare has further re-enforced this divergent views and arose intellectual research. The NATO came up with CIMIC which mean the same thing with CMR while, US and UN on the other hand, came up with Civil Affairs. The former seek to address civil-military synergy towards cordial relations through military aids to civil authority (MACA) in challenging situations and civilians on their own part, cooperates with military in making their task easy and achievable. Civil Affairs’ concept is based on military using civilians for the purposes other than providence, but as tools for commanders to achieve their campaign end-states. Nigeria chose to adopt CIMIC. The unhealthy Internal Security situations and challenges in Nigeria may have informed this decision. United States National Intelligence Council Report of 25 May 2005 which predicted that Nigeria will become a failed state by 2015 also necessitated adoption of multifaceted approaches. Hence, the adoption of CIMIC came handy as one of the palliative measures toward solving ethno/religious insurgences and agitations which have taken a front burner in Nigeria society. The methodology used, allow the description of key concepts, past events relating to ethnic pressure groups, ethnic militias etc on National Security. At the same time allow the analysis of data collated regarding the research variables. Primary data were collected from respondents throughout the country. These were supported by secondary data from journals, newspapers, books and electronic sources. Government has made efforts to curtail the unwholesome activities of ethnic pressure groups. Some of the measures include the establishment of the OMPADEC, NDDC and others. The convocation of the NPRC was also an attempt to solve the problem of ethnic crisis. Despite these efforts, the negative activities of ethnic pressure groups persist unabated. Consequently, recommendations made include adequate training for personnel of Armed Forces in CMR in order to use it as a platform to curtail activities of ethnic pressure groups and reduce their influence on National Security situations. The research revealed that there is a direct relationship between CMR and Nigeria National Security situation. Hence, the need to adopt CMR in totality in Nigeria Armed Forces. Lastly, the DHQ should implement the recommendations made in this research effort.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Research Questions
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.8 Method of Data Collection and Analysis
1.9 Conceptual Clarification
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Concept of Civil – Military Relations
2.2 Concept of National Security
2.3 The Armed forces in Internal Security Operations
2.4 Relevance of Internal Security Operations
2.5 Concept of Civil Affairs
2.6 Roles of the Military
2.7 Theoretical Framework
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of study
3.3 Instrument of Data Collection
3.4 Validations and Reliability of Instruments
3.5 Weakness of the Methodology
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Respondents profile
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.3 Knowledge of the extent of Civil-Military Relations in Armed Forces
4.5 Knowledge of the principles of internal Security operation
4.6 Knowledge and participation in internal Security Operations by Armed Forces Personnel
4.7 Test of hypothesis
5.0 Summary/Conclusion and Recommendations
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
- AFCSC Armed Forces Command and Staff
- AHQ Army Headquarters.
- CIMIC Civil-Military Cooperation.
- CMR Civil-Military Relations.
- COAS Chief of Army Staff.
- DHQ Defence Headquarters.
- ICRC International Committee of Red Cross.
- IS Internal Security.
- LCpl Lance Corporal.
- Lt Col Lieutenant Colonel.
- 2/Lt Second Lieutenant.
- MDAs Ministries Departments and Agencies.
- MAW Manouvrist Approach to Warfare.
- NA Nigerian Army.
- NAF Nigerian Air Force.
- NATO Non-Align Treaty Organization.
- NDDC Niger Delta Development Commission.
- NN Nigerian Navy.
- NP Nigeria Police.
- OMPADEC Oil Mineral Producing Area Development Commission.
- Ssgt Staff Sergeant.
- WO Warrant Officer.
- MWO Master Warrant Officer.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
- Civil-Military Relations. All aspects of the armed forces’ relations with the society within which they exist.
- Democratic Model. Democratic model deals with the closeness between the military and society.
- Ethnicity. Ethnicity is a derivative of the word ethnic, which means a specified origin relating to a group of people having a common national or cultural tradition.
- Ethno/Religious Group. Ethnic groups are those human groups that entertain a subjective belief in their common descent because of similarities of physical type or of customs or both, or because of memories of colonization and migration.
- Ethnic Militia. An ethnic militia is an armed group set up to pursue the interest of a group and if necessary, to commit violence in the process.
- Liberal Model. Civil control which emphasizes the separation of powers and assumes that military has no power of its own.
- National Security. National security is the ability of a nation-state to prevent all forms of threats to its survival ranging from external aggression to threats of economic, political and social insecurities among others, whilst grappling with the challenges of national development.
- Security Agencies. Security agencies include the Armed Forces, DSS and the NP.
- Traditional Model. Civil control over the military premised upon the absence of civilian-military differences.
The complexities associated with modern battlefields have influenced the crafting of strategy towards employment of technological products for reasons of lethality and operational fluidity. Also, humanitarian considerations have become essential, leading to the adoption of the Manoeuvrist Approach to Warfare (MAW) in place of the Attritionists’ Approach to Warfare that demonized the profession through the last centuries. Without prejudice to humanitarian concerns associated with the MAW, in populated areas remain pronounced, thereby necessitating military engagement in relieving affected civilian populations.
The importance of good relation between the military and civil populace cannot be over-emphasised (NATO Civil-Military Co-operation, 2001:1-1). A number of internal security operations that the Nigerian Armed Forces is currently conducting in the Niger Delta and other parts of the country calls for a co-ordinated approach to the integration of the civilian dimension into operational plans. This is to avoid misinterpretation, misrepresentation of the intentions and actions of the military. This is important to ensure that internal security (IS) operations do not undermine National Security. It is in this light that this study seeks to answer the following questions:
- What is the relationship between CMR and National Security?
- What are the effects of CMR on National Security challenges?
- Could CMR be partly panacea to attainment of National Security?
- What policies and strategies are required to guide CMR toward enhancing National Security?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To establish a relationship between CMR and National Security.
- To highlight the effects of CMR on National Security challenges.
- To establish that CMR if accorded its deserved priority could be the solution to many National Security challenges.
- To proffer strategies for CMR as a factor towards solving Nigeria’s security challenges.
There is a conventional notion that a country is most secured when its security apparatus are potent. This has resulted into nation states placing much premium on the concept of national security often at the detriment of the citizens. This study therefore, seeks to establish the imperatives of mutual relationship between military and the civil populace towards solving Nigeria’s Security challenges.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would contribute towards enhancing alternative ways of handling security challenges in Nigeria. Its findings would assist the Nigerian State in formulating policies that would entrench great bond between the military and civilians in attempt to efficiently handle the nation’s security challenges.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The concept of national security has permeated in global discourse since the end of Cold War while CMR is a concept that is just coming on board in Nigeria. In the course of this study, the period spanning from 1999 till date shall be covered and only relevant literatures on this concept will be referred to.
This research work is impaired by some limitations. The key limitations were of secondary data to analyse the concept of CMR and national security of other developed nations. Although, the data used were from reputable international sources, the authenticity of their findings might not be insulated from bias. The concepts of CMR and national security challenges are intangible. Hence, the empirical testing of both concepts was relatively impossible. However, this did not affect the quality of research carried out and the outcomes of the findings.
1.8 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
The data used in this study were largely collected from secondary sources. This include data on some selected countries concepts of CMR irrespective of the names it is called. Additionally, data were obtained from research of relevant literatures and publications. These formed the basis for the comparison of the variables. Furthermore, it aided the study in assessment of the performance of Nigeria in human security when compared to selected countries. This study employed both descriptive and inferential statistics for the analysis of data.
The descriptive statistical tools that were used were tally method, frequency table, percentages, pie charts and bar charts. The tally method was used to allocate tally marks to responses to each answer options. These were then summed up and frequency tables were drawn for each relevant question indicating the available options and the respective frequency of response. The percentage technique was also used to analyze the figures obtained from the frequency tables and pie charts as well bar charts were used to provide a vivid representation of the outcome.
1.9 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
There have been various schools of thought worldwide on what constitutes CMR. Various postulations became necessary as the subject helps build cordial relationship between military and civilians toward achieving nations’ security collaborations and attainments. CMR found its relevance in Nigeria considering the unhealthy unprecedented security challenges facing the country. It further found its relevance as a palliative measure toward solving ethno/religious insurgences and agitations which have taken a front burner in Nigeria society. It is evident that there is a direct relationship between CMR and Nigeria National Security situation. Hence, the need to adopt CMR in totality in Nigeria.
Keywords: CIVIL – MILITARY RELATIONS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: CHALLENGES FOR THE NIGERIAN ARMED FORCES
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