CORRUPTION AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGEIRA
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Table of Content
Chapter one: introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Significant of the Study
1.6 Limitation of the Study
1.7 Research Hypotheses
1.7 Operational Definition
Chapter two: Literature Review
2.1.2 Sustainable Development
2.2 Public Corruption
2.3 Corruption in Nigeria Public Sector An Important to Good Governor and Sustainable Development
2..3 Empirical Review
2.4 Concluding Remarks
2.5 Perspectives of Corrupt Practices in the Nigerian fourth Republic
2.6 Anti- Corruption Efforts in Nigeria
2.7 Nigeria Anti – Graft Commission
2.8 The Challenges of Corruption to Sustainable Development
in the Fourth Republic
2/9 Empirical Review
2.10 Gap in Literature
Chapter three: research methodology
3.1 Theoretical Frame Work
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Method of Data Collection
3.4 Method of Data Analysis
Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Causes of Corruption in Nigeria
4.2 Impacts of Corruption on Nigeria’s Quest for Sustainable Development
4.3 The Nexus between Corruption and Sustainable Development
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study:
Political corruption in its various forms is generally believed to be the bane of Nigeria development and it has been devastating the country and destroys its image among the comity of nations. It is now fast becoming a way of life in the country as integrity is now being eroded. Little wonder why in recent times, both the past and present government in the country made the fight against corruption a top priority. But none seems to have made a considerable headway.
The reflections of their efforts were made manifest in the establishment of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Commission (ICPC). Corruption is found and practiced in every sectors of the public office in Nigeria and it is entrenched in nearly all sections of the society with many people deeply involved in it. Although, it is a global phenomenon but it is more prevalent in one environment than the other and Nigeria is a typical example of such. Iyanda (2012) argued that it is a plague that has eaten so deep into the entire fabric of the Nigerian society; it confers undue benefits on few people contrary to legal and moral norms of the society. It undermines authorities’ effort to provide suitable welfare for all citizens as the resources to do this are in the hands or at the reach of few of the populace, prior to its contagious and incurable infection.
In the words of Chinua Achebe as cited in Keeper (2012) that anyone who can say that corruption in Nigeria has not yet been alarming is either a fool; a crook or else does not live in this country. The situation has become bad to the extent that as far back as 1993, keeping an average Nigeria from being corrupt is like keeping a goat from eating yam (Achebe, 1988).This brilliantly explains the state of corruption among Nigerians and why all efforts to establish a just and egalitarian society in the country failed ever since. Corruption made development to be stunted in Nigeria. There is no effective and efficient administration in Nigeria that has not been frustrated by this evil. People bribe to get almost everything done in the country. For instance, Tokunbo (1992) alludes to the fact that you bribe to get your child into a school, you pay to secure a job and you also continue to pay in some cases to retain it. You pay 10 percent of every contract obtained, you dash the tax officer to avoid paying taxes, you pay the hospital doctor and nurse to get proper attention, and you pay the policemen to evade arrest, this catalogue of shame can continue without end. Corruption is the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development. It undermines development by distorting the role of law and weakening the institutional foundation on which economic growth depends (World Bank). It is one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world. It undermines good government, fundamentally distorts public policy, leads to the misallocation of resources, harms the private sector and private sector development and particularly hurts the poor (Transparency International).
1.2 Statement of the Problem:
Corruption remains a universal phenomenon, which has been in existence for a very long time and always have adverse effects on the society ever since. Several people involved in it in the pursuit of the specific purpose or interests. It has overtime ruined the hopes for greater tomorrow and destroyed the value system in the country so much so that the world begins to see us as men and women without honour and dignity.
It has led to slow movement of files in offices, police extortion and slow traffic on the highways, port congestion, and queues at gas stations, ghost workers syndrome, and election irregularities among others. According to Chuta (2004) that the image of the country in the international arena has become so battered that every Nigerian psychologically feel a scorching hurt inflicted on his individual psyche. The dent has gone so far that everywhere in the world, Nigerians are said to be generally dreaded like mad dogs and criminals, cautiously approached like dangerous snakes, and avoided .Corruption is politically destabilizing, that is it has the capacity of engendering political instability, breakdown of law and order, brain drain, inefficient of the public service among others (Lawal, 2006).
The menace of corruption by Nigerian leaders has certainly emerged as one of the main impediments to national development. Corruption by Nigerian leaders has caused the country severe losses economically, politically and socially, and these facts are responsible for decayed infrastructure, downturn of indicators of national development. Agreeing with this, Human Rights Watch (2007:40) stated that Nigeria has some of the worst socio-economic indicators in the world and the overall picture has not improved since the end of the military rule. Research has shown that the prevalence of corrupt leaders in Nigeria has a tremendous adverse effect on the quality of life, living standard and national psyche. The study tends to proffer answers to the questions of whether there are relationships between corruption and sustainable development in Nigeria. And also, to what extent has corruption undermined sustainable development in the country?
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main focus of the study is to assess the nexus between corruption and sustainable development in Nigeria. The following are the specific objectives of the study:
– To examine if embezzlement of public treasury affect the provision of sustainable welfare for all citizens in Nigeria;
– To examine if mismanagement of public fund is responsible for the decay of infrastructural development in Nigeria;
-To determine if corruption in the public offices has reduced poverty in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions:
- Has embezzlement of public treasury hinder effort to provide suitable welfare for all citizens in Nigeria?
- Could mismanagement of public fund been responsible for decayed infrastructure in Nigeria?
- Is there a link between corruption in the public offices reduced and in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the Study:
The significance of this work upon completion will provide administrative strategies on how to manage the menace of corruption and provide a strong institutional solution toward the daring fight against corruption which will in turn engender economic development. Thus, this work will be significant to EFCC, legislative body, public offices, academic body and the students’ of political science and public administration in Nigerian University.
1.6 Limitation of the Study:
During this research work, the researcher encountered some challenges, one of which is time factor, I was hooked up with so many activities in school such as assignments, presentations etc, that I gave little time into carrying out a detailed research work which has always been my desire to do and coupled with the limited time given to submit the work, I had no choice than to maximize the little time I had, I was able to complete the work within the time frame stipulated for it.
Due to the nature of our country where there is limited internet access, I encountered the problem of gathering enough fact through online journals, books and articles. To get an accurate information needed for the research, I had to buy internet bundle for the research work which requires money and getting this finance to facilitate the free flow of the this research work was the major impediment that I encountered during the course of this study.
However, I was able to combat these impediments with the help of my parents who worked assiduously in providing me with financial support to ensure the success of the work.
1.7 Research Hypotheses:
To further guide the study, the following hypotheses were put forward for investigation:
- Embezzlement of public treasury has hindered effort to provide suitable welfare for all citizens in Nigeria.
- Mismanagement of public fund been responsible for the decayed infrastructure in Nigeria?
- There is a link between corruption in the public offices and poverty in Nigeria.
1.8 Operational Definitions:
Political Corruption: political corruption is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit. Political corruption may include many activities but in this study it emphasizes embezzlement of public treasury, mismanagement of public fund and bribery and corruption, although it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries. Government, or ‘political’, corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain. Public sector corruption includes corruption of the political process and of government agencies such as the police as well as corruption in processes of allocating public funds for contracts, grants, and hiring. Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions (elected officials or bureaucrats) can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face.
Economic development: is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. The term has been used frequently by economists, politicians, and others in the 20th and 21st centuries. The concept, however, has been in existence in the West for centuries. Whereas economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP. However, in this study the empirical indicator to address sustainable economic development are the welfare of the citizens, infrastructural development, and poverty and unemployment.