PROJECT TOPIC : DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING SAFE WEIGHT LIFT CALCULATOR
CHAPTERS: Chapter 1 – 5
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FORMAT: Ms Word
This study, DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING SAFE WEIGHT LIFT CALCULATOR contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords: SAFE WEIGHT LIFT CALCULATOR
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Weight Lift Calculator is a tool used by professionals to assess manual material handling risks associated with lifting and lowering tasks in the workplace. This equation considers job task variables to determine safe lifting practices and guidelines.
Injuries can occur anywhere people are at work. On farms, building sites, factories, offices, warehouses, hospitals, banks, laboratories, and while making deliveries.
Back injuries to the lifters caused by lifting, remain a common occurrence not only in developed countries, but also in developing and under developed countries. Asymmetric lifting task, combining lifting, bending and twisting motions of the torso is more harmful to back spine than symmetric lifting (Lee, 2005).
Excessive heavy lifts can lead to occurrence of low back disorder, pain or injury. Therefore, work places have been removing heavy lifting situations and replacing it with lighter lifts that have to be performed more frequently (Callaghan and Parkinson, 2010).
Louw, Morris, and Somers, (2007) defined low back pain as muscle tension or stiffness, localised below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds with or without leg pain. And according to Kartz, (2006) low back pain may result in significant levels of disability thereby producing restrictions on usual activity participation such as inability to work.
Ismaila, (2006) defined a safe weight lift (SWL)as that weight whose axial component compressive force perpendicular to the disc plane is incapable of causing plastic deformation of disc (spinal column) and recommended weight lift (RWL) as a specific set of task conditions that nearly all healthy workers can perform over a substantial period of time without increasing the risk of developing, lift-related back pain (Waters, Putz-Anderson, Garg, and Fine, 1993),.
In a research carried out in South Africa on 212 construction workers’ it was observed that there were prevalence of low back pain, where in a month and a week prevalencerates, were 69% and 54% respectively (Himalowa, 2010).
Harold and Ndubueze (2013) interviewed about twenty – eight (28) workers who specialised in brick making in Anambra state Nigeria, about the perceived pain or discomfort and the body part assessed were the neck, shoulders, upperback, elbow, lower back, wrist, hips/thighs, knees and ankles/feet the respondents indicated 14.29%, 39.29%, 46.43%, 10.71%, 64.29%, 17.86%, 21.43%, 7.20% and 0.00% respectively where lower back area had highest percentage of 64.29.
The researcher also consider other workers such as bricklayers, plasterers and their assisstant and respondent indicated 52.77%, 52.17% and 48.07% respectively for having lower back pain.
As was observed by Childs, Fritz, Flynn, Irgang, Johnson, Majkowski, and Delitt (2004), that low back pain incurs billion of dollars in medical expenditures and each years economic burden is of particular concern in Africa,to avoid spending this billion of dollars which may not even be made available therefore lead to the design and implementaton of a safe weight lift calculator.
Three major different approaches has been used in many literatures to determine weight limits namely biomechanical, physiological and psychophysical approaches (Cheng Te-Shiang and Lee Tzu-Hsien, 2006), (Mital and Manivasagan, 1983), (Norman, Franzer, Wells, Neumann, and McGill, 2000).
To design and implement a Safe weightlift calculator,the safe weight lift(SWL) has to be determined and the model we have designed will be compared with the Recommended Weight Limit (RWL) of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, 1991).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of spinal loading and probabilty of low back pain amongst some occupations is a needed area of research to reduce the effect of this problem on the workers’ and the nation’s economy.These have been reported in the literatures that musculoskeletal disorder requires billion of dollars to treat. Therefore, there is need to design and implementsafe weight lift calculator in order to save both loss of man hours and waste of limited financial resources on treating low back pain related problem(Ismaila, 2006).
1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at designing and implementing Safe weight lift calculator.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
- To determine safe weight of lift (SWL) and lifting index (LI) of safe weight of lift .
- To determine recommended weight limit (RWL) and lifting index (LI) of recommended weight limit.
- To evaluate differences between safe weight of lift (SWL) and recommended weight limit (RWL).
- To evaluate differences between lifting index (LI) of safe weight of lift and lifting index (LI) of recommended weight limit.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The need to determine a safe weight of lift has lead to the design and implemention of a safe weight lift calculator.
Manual workers ranging from the Block industries to Textile companies to Tile-making companies etc cannot be overemphasizedas it is necessary to consider short-term effects of loading the spine by looking into the workload and its consequences, since long-term health effects due to spinal loading is difficult to assess(Ismaila, 2006).
The design and implemention of a safe weight lift calculatoris required to determine the safe weight lift as proposed by Ismaila, (2006) to help reduce spinal loading and the probability of low back pain in companies and industries and has been observed in recent findings by many researchers that both the original equation of NIOSH and the revised version of 1991 may be limited in its predictive powers for some kind of lifting tasks. Also from cadaveric studies and epidemiologic research on low back disorder risk factors that biomechanical variables such as moments and trunk motions influence the structural integrity of the spine and are associated with the reporting of low back disorder in lifting tasks.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
Low back pain (LBP) and injuries attributed to manual lifting activities continue as one of the leading occupational health and safety issues facing preventive medicine. Despite efforts to control, including programs directed at both workers and jobs, work related back injuries still account for a significant proportion of human suffering and economic cost to this nation.
This project is dedicated to providing a lift calculator that ensures easy calculation for Safe Weight Lift (SWL) and comparing it against the Recommended Weight Lift (RWL) as proposed by Ismaila (2006) and their corresponding Lifting Index (LI).
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following list identifies a set of work conditions in which the application of the lifting equation could either under or overestimate the extent of physical stress associated with a particular work related activity.
- The lifting equation is a tool for accessing the physical stress of two-handed manual lifting tasks. As with any tool, its application is limited to those conditions for which it was designed.
- Specifically, the lifting equation was designed to meet specific lifting related criteria that encompass biomechanical, work physiology and psychophysical assumptions and data. To the extent that a given lifting task accurately reflects these underlying conditions and criteria, this lifting equation may be appropriately applied.
- The revised NIOSH lifting equation is based on the assumption that manual handling activities other than lifting are minimal and do not require significant energy expenditure especially when repetitive lifting tasks are performed. Examples of non-lifting tasks include holding, pushing, pulling, carrying, walking and climbing.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- LI – Lifting Index.
- MAWL – Maximum Acceptable weight of lift.
- NIOSH – National institute of occupational safety and health.
- RWL- Recommended weight lift.
- SWL- Safe weight lift.
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