PROJECT TOPIC : DRUG ABUSE AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NSIT IBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE
CHAPTERS: Chapter 1 – 5
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This study, DRUG ABUSE AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NSIT IBOM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords: drug abuse, relationship between drug abuse
- 1.1Background to the study
In recent times, so much has been said about drug abuse and addictions. The history of taking drugs for non-medical purposes dates back thousands of years. Man has always been adapt at discovering and utilizing mood altering drugs.
Drug abuse means indiscriminate use of drugs without regards to medical practitioners’ or doctors’ guideline. A drug is also abused when it is taken for any other purpose other than that for which it is intended and in a way that could damage the user’s health or ability to function. Most of the drug is used in such large quantities which in turn produce certain dangers to the individual.
According to Sonnerdrcker (1991) drugs were initially used only for treating or curing illness and controlling diseases. During the prehistoric period, people used various substances to reduce pain suffering and to alter their feeding in order to achieve a state of well being. With the passage of time, due to the inconsistent and continued use of drugs their other characteristics were discovered. Hence, many of the drugs are now being used for other purposes rather than medicine (Tiautman 1966). Many drugs are used as a means of enjoyment or used for preventing daily tiredness. People use some drugs to induce themselves to work beyond their capacity. Today, drugs are being used indiscriminately by people with the intention to enjoy, avoid stress of everyday living, and to slow down or become excessively active. This indiscriminate use of drugs is what Rimm and Somerwill (1977) and Aliyu (1981) called drug abuse.
The dilemma posed by drug abuse has reached such an alarming state that most countries see it as being social crises. A significant number of deaths from accidents and violent crimes in different countries today have been traced to the activities of people under the influence of drugs (Awake October 2005). It is true that in our society today, drug abuse has created a lot of social problems ranging from truancy to delinquency among our youths, to family disharmony and destitution (Awake April 2003). For example these drug dependent youths could make themselves available to be used as thus, fraudsters and paid assassins. In the same sense, young girls under the influence of drugs are known to be parading themselves on the streets at night in towns and cities as prostitutes thereby exposing themselves to various types of diseases and as a result of this, they drop out of schools and cannot further their education.
Confirming the social implications of drug abuse Anokwu (1979) observed that high incidence of child delinquency is attributed to drug abuse. Odejide, Banboye and Ikuesan (1987) reveal other social aspects of drug abuse to include dropping out of school, promiscuity, loss of sense of responsibility and deliberate self havoc.
One might readily argue that students’ drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions in secondary schools. There was a time when secondary school students represented some of the Nigerians most lively ambitious and energetic population. However, the students’ drug abuse of today has severely tarnished that image. Thus according to Stockwell (2001) “attitudes towards society among secondary school students today have changed beyond recognition”.
Though laws have been enacted and stiff penalties marked out against the unauthorized use of drugs, people including students obtain some of these drugs illegally from patient medicine dealers and peddlers who make these drugs available for the public. Because of the illegal sources from which these drugs are obtained, students often abuse the use of the drugs, in excess which does not fall in line with medical prescription. The situation is worrisome especially because it has affected students’ academic performance.
- 1.2Theoretical framework
The idea that school-related problems and substance use coexist has been incorporated into many theories that provide explanations for substance use and offer problem behaviours. For example one of the most influential theories, Hirschi’s Social Control theory (Hirschi, 1969) proposes that the major sources for establishing social norms are the school, the family and peers. He proposes that students who lack strong bonds to these pro-social people institutions are more likely to be involved in delinquency. One of the most well known (and applied) theories that include a strong social control component is the social development model. Hawkins and Weis (1985) stress the important of school bonding as a critical component of their model. They suggest that a strong school bond is characterized by a student’s attachment to pro-social peers, a commitment to conventional academic and social endeavours at school and a demonstrated belief in established, pro-social norms. The social development model hypothesizes that students who are not well bonded to school are more likely to follow anti-social path through adolescence.
Another prominent theory is Primary Socialization Theory (Oetting and Donnermeyer, 1998) which emphasizes the mediating role of peers in social learning. Adolescents with delinquent peers are more likely to obtain social reward for delinquent behaviour, including drug use, and therefore learn and adopt attitudes favourable to drug use. Primary Secondary theory posits that students who lack a strong commitment to school will be more likely to become involved with delinquent peers, which in turn may lead to their own involvement in delinquency (including drug use).
One other theoretical framework that is important to consider is strain theory (Cloward and Ohlin, 1960). This theory hypothesized that adolescents are more likely to engage in delinquency, including drug use, when faced with a significant discrepancy between their personal aspirations and their perceived opportunities. That is, students who desire success but perceive that success is not personally obtainable are more likely to engage in delinquent behaviour. Lack of success in school is considered as one of the major sources of strain.
- 1.3Statement of the problem
This study was precipitated by the dwindling academic performance of students in Akwa Ibom State occasioned by the high rate of drug abuse among them. Looking at the level of indiscipline in our secondary schools today, one can easily find out that drug abuse plays a detrimental role in academic performance of students in post primary schools. Drug abuse has now reached an alarming proportion within the society. Tarlier reports shows that about seventy percent of patients attending Neuro-psychiatric hospitals today in Nigeria are students. Oviasu (1976) found out that 21.3 percent of those classified and admitted in a psychiatric hospitals in Benin city, Nigeria following use of marijuana were students. Reports also show that there has been a sporadic increase in the rate of drug abuse among students in Post primary Schools and consequently, school indiscipline (such as lateness to school, skipping classes, failure to complete assignments, armed robbery, burglary, high rate of road and fire accidents, juvenile delinquency and other societal ills. These problems have aroused great attention to so many well meaning Nigerians including students all making efforts to study and analyze factors and problems associated with drug abuse.
Thus, the basic problem of this study is the poor academic performance of students in secondary schools, occasioned by the researcher’s suspicion that it is the result of drug abuse among the students.
- 1.4Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in secondary schools. Specifically, the study investigates:
- The relationship between drug abuse through intake of hallucinogens and students academic performance.
- The relationship between drug abuse through alcohol consumption and students academic performance.
- The relationship between drug abuse through cigarette smoking and students academic performance.
- The relationship between drug abuse through intake of narcotics and students academic performance.
- The relationship between drug abuse through intake of stimulants and students academic performance.
- 1.5Research questions
The following research questions are deemed necessary for this study.
- What is the relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance?
- What is the relationship between drug abuse by students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance?
- What is the relationship between drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance?
- What is the relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance.
- What is the relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance.
The above research questions were converted into the following hypotheses.
- There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of hallucinogens and their academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through alcohol consumption and their academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through cigarette smoking and their academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of narcotics and their academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between drug abuse by students through intake of stimulants and their academic performance.
- 1.7Significance of the study
The significance of this study cannot be over emphasized in a rapidly developing country such as Nigeria. The country’s hope of creating a democratic, egalitarian, self reliant and dynamic economy with full opportunities for all would not be achieved if the youths are not drug free.
This study will enlighten the youths on the inherent danger of drug abuse on their academic performance and educate parents and teachers on the early detection of drug abuse of their wards. It will offer recommendations that will help the government and other organizations concerned with the menace of drug abuse in solving some of its problems. it will also help other researcher in this field to have first hand information on the role drugs play on the academic performance of students.
Emphatically this study will expose the researcher to the opportunity of amazing readable articles, data and quotations related to drug abuse for youths to read have an insight into the modern trend of drug abuse. This in effect will place them in a good position to make positive decisions about drug abuse and to join in the campaign against drug abuse among students in Nigeria society.
- 1.8Assumptions of the study.
The following assumptions have been made on the study.
- Pressure of work and pressure to succeed in competitive situations may encourage drug abuse.
- Peer group influences students’ use of drugs in secondary schools
- Availability of drugs encourages students’ abuse of drugs in secondary schools.
- Drug taking habits of parents’ influences students in taking drugs in secondary schools.
- The variables of study drug abuse and students’ in taking drugs in secondary schools.
- 1.9Scope of the study
Though the task of the research is to investigate the effects of drug abuse on the academic performance of students in secondary school in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state. It will be difficult if not impossible to cover all the secondary schools in Nsit Ibom. Accordingly six secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area have been selected from the total number of twelve secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area for the study.
Again students that will be given questionnaire will be those in higher classes. This will be done because the researcher expects them to understand the questionnaire better and therefore provide more useful answers and information.
- 1.10Limitation of the study
Equally the researcher was hindered by the unwillingness of the respondents to reveal important information. Also, transportation problem hindered the researcher. The researcher found it difficult to move from school to school to gather information for the research study and as such fewer school were reached than expected.
- 1.11Definition of terms
Addiction: A state in which an individual is physically dependent upon a particular substance and suffers when it is devoid to him.
Adolescence: The time of life between puberty and maturity. The youth period from 12 years to 20 years.
Cannabis: This is hemp plant commonly referred to as marijuana, Indian hemp or “grass”.
Dependence: A state of period or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and the society produced by the repeated consumption of the drug.
Depressant: Drugs that act to decrease body cell activity and induce drowsiness and sleep.
General drugs: Drugs used to combat infection and disease and have mild effect the body and mind, for example analgesics, anti-malaria and antibiotics.
Hallucinogens: They are the most powerful of the psychoactive drugs and change the user’s mood, mental attitude and environment.
Narcotics: Drugs that affect the central nervous system to dull the senses, relieve pains and cause sleep.
Psychotropic drugs: Drugs that cause drowsiness or excitement
Stimulants: Drugs that excite body cells to increase activity and stimulate the central nervous system.
Sedatives: Drugs that cause drowsiness or excitement.
Tolerance: A condition that develops when a body becomes accustomed to a drug and no longer responds to the original dosage of the drugs.