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THE EFFECT OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL ( A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IJEBU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE)

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[icon type=”icon-pencil”]: THE EFFECT OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL ( A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IJEBU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE)
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This study, THE EFFECT OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL ( A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IJEBU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE) contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.

Keywords: THE EFFECT OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL ( A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IJEBU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE)


RESEARCH BODY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Surprisingly, most teachers of social studies in our secondary schools today are still known to have difficulty in teaching some social studies concepts thus leading to students’ poor achievement in such areas especially in prescribed external examinations like West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE), National Examination Council (NECO) and National Technical Education Board (NATEB) (Egun, 2007). Again, there has been a general perception of social studies by an average Nigerian student, that it is a course that is dominated with practical and is majorly meant fo r students that are intellectually incapacitated (Adah, 2011). The way and manner students perceived the course, arises from the fact that instructional approaches adopted by teachers both in the classroom and on the field during teaching and learning process are not impressive. The effect of poor achievement of students in the subject could be traced to the method of teaching. To arrest students’ attention, interest, curiosity and promote their achievement, the use of problem-solving and discussion  approach instead of depending on the conventional approach need to be embraced.

The method to be used for effective teaching and learning is a matter of grave concern to teachers and educators. It has also been noted that lecture method commonly used for teaching/learning process in Nigerian schools is not so effective because the students are not given the opportunity to interact with the environment and maximally develop their intellectual capabilities. Obebe  (1981)  carried  out  a  research  on  the  knowledge  of  contents  and  teaching  methods  in  Social  Studies.  He discovered that lecture method  had  negative  effects  on  students.  Such  effects  include  total  lack of  motivation, inability  to  cover  the  contents  of  the  curriculum,  negative  attitude  towards  the  subject  and  low  achievement  on  the part of the students and teachers. Seweje (2010) confirmed that the methods adopted by teachers in most cases include the talk and chalk (lecture) with very little concern for practical activities. Seweje (2010) explained further that a teacher is expected to be a facilitator whose  main  function  is  to  help  learners  to  become  active  participants  in  their  learning  and  thereby  making meaningful  connection  between  prior  knowledge,  new  knowledge  and  the  process  involved  in  learning.  Akinleye (2010)  confirmed  that  if  the  children  are  given  opportunity  to  be  listened  to  and  guided  in  a  non-threatening atmosphere, they would perform wonders in terms of problem-solving and decision making.

Problem-solving involves techniques such as questioning, sorting, field trips, interviewing, brainstorming, role-playing, projects, use of resource persons, library search and other creative activities (Adewuya 2003). All these techniques open  up students to problem-solving activities  such as critical thinking, searching  for  more knowledge, analyzing,  investigating  and  collating  issues  and  ideas,  formulating  hypotheses,  experimenting  guesses  and collecting and analyzing information (Adewuya, 2002). According to  Joyce,  Well  and  Calhoun  (2000),  inquiry/problem-solving  is  a  learning  process  whereby questions are created or problems are developed by the students based on facts and observations examined logically. Iyamu and Otote (2007) confirmed that inquiry/problem-solving is a whole complex of instructional phenomenon in which the teacher makes use of a variety of methods and activities that encourage students‟ active involvement in the generation of  their  own  knowledge.  Craig  (2001)  defined  a  problem  as  any  situation  where  one  has  an opportunity to make a difference or to make things better. Problem solving is converting the actual current situation into a  desired  future  situation.  He  explained  further  that  the  acts  of  creative  and  critical  thinking  about  ways  to increase the quality of life or avoid a decrease in quality are acts of problem solving.

Problem-solving  approach  to  teaching  usually  involves  an  interest  approach,  a  description  of  teaching objectives,  identification  of  the  problems  to  be  solved,  actual  problem  solution,  testing  of  the  solution  and  an evaluation of the solution (Newcomb, McCracken, Warmbrod & Whittington, 2004). Mann (2001) also agreed that it is essential to develop awareness in the students that they themselves have the reason why a solution is not being found  to  a  particular  problem.  He  pointed  out  that  if  the  teacher  moves  from  a  problem  towards  a  solution,  the students  will be in the dark until the last  moment.  Ayeni (2007) reported that problem-solving approach is used to identify particular issues and raises questions on them, hypothesizing possibilities and seeking evidence to establish facts in educational research.  In  support  of  the  above  ideas,  Hermann  (2007)  recommended  brainstorming  or  mind-storming  at  the  first stage of problem-solving, even before defining the problem. He explained further that brainstorming requires using the creative hemisphere of one‟s brain before the logical hemisphere takes over. Mistry, White & Berardi (2006) concluded  that  the  area  of  problem-solving  skills  is  considered  a  high  priority  skill  area,  even  in  post-graduate studies development.  Herrman (2007) equated preference dominance to creative problem-solving. He believed that dominance or cognitive  thinking  processes  or  preferred  modes  of  knowing  have  advantages  in  quick  response  time  and  higher skills  level.  Douglas  and  Kristin  (2000)  agreed  that  students  can  learn  both  new  concepts  and  skills  while  solving problems. Jimoh (2001) also supported the idea that problem-solving method develops students‟ interest in critical thinking and evaluative reasoning. Abdu-Raheem (2010) concluded that if the steps required in the use of problem-solving  method  of  teaching  such  as  identification  of  problem,  observation,  interpretation,  manipulation  and creativity, are properly utilized, students‟ achievement will increase drastically.Orimogunje  (2008)  emphasized  the  need  for  using  an  innovative  strategy  such  as  problem-solving  to correct  the  mismatch  of  post-primary  Social  Studies  with  the  traditional  lecture method.  In  support  of  the  above idea,  Bandele  (2003)  confirmed  that  the  health  of  classroom  interaction  is  dictated  by  the  quality  of  instructions given during the actual lesson periods. Sotonwa (2003) explained that good teaching matters in raising the standard of  education  and  the  achievement  of  students.  Ekanola  (2007)  concluded  that  problem-solving  is  designed  to facilitate both knowledge acquisition and utilization.

Akinleye  (2010)  observed  that  children  are  known  to  be  effective  problem-solvers  and decision  makers when  given  the  opportunity  to  be  listened  to  and  guided  in  a  non-threatening  atmosphere.  Akinleye  (2010)  also noted  that  pupils  must  be  put  on  the  right  part  of  problem-solving  with  understanding  and  insight.  Seweje  (2010) noted that in learning generally, learners must interact with contents in order to construct their own meanings so as to integrate new knowledge into the existing cognitive structure. Seweje (2010) recommended that steps should be taken  to  improve  the  overall  teaching,  practical  and  service  delivery  and  equally  charged  the  teachers  to  make  the subject interesting and friendly.

Discussion is a method in which the teacher leads or guides the students in expressing their opinions and ideas with a view to identifying and solving problems collectively. Oyedeji (1996) explained that the discussion method works on the principle that the knowledge and ideas of several people are more likely to find solutions or answers to specified problems or topics. This is in line with the saying that “Two good heads are better than one”. Discussion method of teaching engages both the teachers and students in thinking. It also develops in students social skills of talking and listening. Of course, the method also has some demerits including the possibility that class may be diverted from the topic. Academically weak students may not actively take part in the lessons. Some brilliant ones may likely take over the discussion. Problems may occur among the participants owing to lack of respect for other peoples’ opinions and the whole class may turn into a state of pandemonium. The above problems may arise as a result of poor handling of the discussion method.

In teaching Social Studies, therefore, learners should be exposed to those processes that will make them identify the major difference among information, knowledge and reality. Learners gain knowledge when appropriate information is given to them and they process the information constantly. Information does not become knowledge automatically until  learners  have been  actively  involved  in  its  processing  (Akinleye,  2010).  Therefore,  Social  Studies  teachers should promote discussion  as a method of teaching Social Studies that encourages active participation of learners in learning processes.

Discussion is a method of teaching Social Studies in Nigeria. It works on the principle that many people are to put heads  together  in  terms  of  knowledge  and  ideas  to  find  solutions  to  specified  problems.  The activities  of  the discussion group are to be regulated and directed by the teacher or an appointee of the class. Group discussion may take a variety of forms such as small group, devil’s advocate, round table, panel discussion, opposing panel and debate (Adewuya, 2003). Some of the advantages of the method are sharing of ideas by students, development of social skills of talking and listening, clarification of ideas and promotion of team work. Despite all the above mentioned advantages, the  demerits  are  numerous.  Discussion can get out  of  hand  if  not  properly controlled,  the  class  may  turn  to  a  market  place  and  confusion  may  arise  as  a  result  of  poor  management  and informal nature of the organization.

According  to  Stephens  and  Stephens  (2005),  discussion  as  a  process  of  giving  and  talking,  speaking  and  listening, describing and witnessing which helps expand horizons and foster mutual understanding. They explained further that it  is  only  through  discussion  that  one  can  be  exposed  to  new  points  of  view  and  exposure  increases  understanding and renews motivation to continue learning. Bridges (1988) noted that discussion is concerned with the development of knowledge, understanding or judgment among those people taking part in it. He believes that discussion is more serious than conversation because it requires to be both “mutually responsive” to the different views expressed.

Dillion (1994) emphasized that discussion is highly “disciplined and concerted” in which people come together to resolve some  issues  or  problem  that  is  important  to  them.  Dillion  (1994)  saw  discussion  as  an  important  way  for people to affiliate with one another to develop the sympathies and skills that make participatory democracy possible. Abdu-Raheem ( 2010) recommended that as a matter of urgency, teachers of Social Studies should explore and use discussion  method  of  teaching  to  promote  knowledge  to  secondary  school  students.  She explained further  that  if discussion method is properly managed, it will go a long way to improve students’ achievement in Social Studies.It is a matter of grave concern for educational stake-holders that the level of achievement of  students  to  learning  is  reducing  day-in-day-out.  One  of  the  major  causes  identified  is  the ineffective teaching  of  the  school  subjects  including  Social  Studies.  It  was  also  noted  that  most  of  the  students  of nowadays  are  very  lazy  and  too  playful.  They  can  hardly  identify  and  solve  problems  that  come  their  ways  by themselves.  They  mostly  rely  on  parents,  teachers  and  elders  to  solve  problems  for  them.  May  be  during teaching/learning processes, teachers have not been giving them challenging tasks that could enhance development of  thinking  skills  and  creative  activities.  Upon this background will this study base it findings on the effect of two methods of teaching on students’ achievement in social studies for junior secondary school.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The  problem  of effective  teaching  and  learning  of  Social  Studies  in  Nigerian  Secondary  schools  has  become  a sensitive issue that needs urgent attention. It has been observed that the issue is affecting the achievement of students in both internal and external examinations adversely. It has also been discovered that the poor academic achievement of  students  is  related  to  the  methods  used  to  teach  them  by  the  teachers.  Observation shows that many teachers still rely heavily on the traditional lecture method of teaching Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools which have been considered to be a major issue in learning and teaching of social studies. This study therefore attempts to investigate the effects of two methods of teaching social studies in junior secondary school.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To examine the knowledge of male and female teachers on both discussion and problem-solving method of teaching students achievement in social studies.
  2. To establish to what extent the effect of discussion and problem-solving method for teaching have on students achievement social studies in Junior secondary in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State.
  3. To find out the extent to which teachers applydiscussion and problem-solving method when teaching students Social Studies in school.
  4. To recommends ways on utilizing this methods and achieving proper students achievement.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION

  1. Is there a significant difference in the knowledgemale and female teachers on the use of discussion and problem-solving method of teaching student achievement in social studies?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between methods of teaching and students achievement in social studies?
  3. Is there any difference in the academic achievement scores of male and female students taught Social studies with discussion and problem-solving method?

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study  is to  investigate  the  use of two methods of teaching students achievement in social studies in Junior secondary in Ijebu North Local Government area of Ogun State.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Teaching  and  learning  Social  Studies  can  only be  successful  if  teachers  teaching  it follow the  guiding  principles,  such  as  the  use  of  the  discussion and problem solving method.  It is hoped that the findings of this study might:

  1. Enable teachers teach  Social  Studies  efficiently  through  proper  application  of discussion and problem solving method.
  2. Contribute in developing deeper insights into the discipline of Social Studies. Assist  teacher  educators  in  an  effort  to  improve  their  techniques  of  interpreting  and applying appropriate approaches to teaching and learning Social Studies.
  3. Encourage teacher educators develop or structure new strategies to implement the Social Studies curriculum more appropriately.
  4. Enhance  the  need  for  continuous  teaching  of Social Studies  as  a  discipline  through secondary education in order to widen the horizons of its conceptualization and application among citizens.

1.6DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study would be delimited to:

The male and female students offering social studiesand other social studies related subject.

The use of descriptive research design.

The use of self structured questionnaire as instrument for data collection

The use of frequency counts and percentage to analyze the demographic data and the use of t-test analysis  to determine the research question..

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Social Studies:is the integrated study of the social sciences to prepare young people to become responsible citizens.

Teachers:An educator who provides information for students.

Students: is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.

Teaching method: it comprises the principles and methods used for instruction to be implemented by teachers to achieve the desired learning in students.

Keywords: THE EFFECT OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL ( A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IJEBU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE)



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Keywords: THE EFFECT OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL ( A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IJEBU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE)

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