This study, ENHANCING OPPORTUNITIES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION THROUGH VOCATIONAL STUDIES contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
This research work was carried out to investigate opportunities in entrepreneurship education through vocational studies, using School of Vocational Education, Federal College of Education as a case study.
The aim is to highlight the problems faced by Vocational Education and how possible solutions can be proffered.
The instrument used to elicit viable information is questionnaire. During the course of scrutiny, facts were gathered that Vocational Education has enlightened Vocational Educators on the opportunities in entrepreneurship education, vocational studies has reduced social vices in the society and graduates of Vocational Education have been able to be self-reliant.
Recommendations were made that, Vocational and Technical Education should be properly financed for the thoroughly trained workers and Federal government should not lukewarm Vocational and Technical education programmes in Nigeria. Nigeria can become an economic powered house and realize its visions only if proper attention is given to Vocational and Technical Education and suggestions for further studies were given.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The inadequacy of current or existing curricular of general and vocational education system is preparing our graduates for self-employment led to the inclusion of entrepreneurship development to the curricula of our tertiary institutions. The common wealth Ministers of Education in August, 1988 and the Common Wealth Association of Polytechnics in Africa (CAPIA) in 1991 had all at different force recommended the integration of entrepreneurship syllabus into the curricula of our tertiary institutions. The ultimate objectives of entrepreneurial skills development can be described as the promotion of self empowerment and job creation for sustainable development. A lot of dependence have been placed on white-collar job and with the current state of affairs in Nigeria. There is an urgent need to give new orientation to the youths which will encourage them to acquire the knowledge and skills relevant for a career that will be suitable to establish self employment early in life. It is pertinent to reiterate that entrepreneur can take a lot of advantages of the abundant wealth in Nigeria that utilizes these resources for their own contribution to production and also increase employment level.
Entrepreneurship programmes has been designed to provide the people with needed entrepreneurial skills for job creation and employment opportunities (Ojo-Ajibare, 2003). While one sees the need to reduce household poverty as the impetus for the increasing rate in self-employment. Freedman (1990) pointed out that, in developing countries, low income, rural-urban disparities, limited skill formation, weak infrastructures and many unmet demands plus the urgency to eradicate poverty and employment creation place special emphasis on entrepreneurship.
Jonzon and Wise (1989) argued that in the industrialized centrally planned economics, entrepreneurship has assumed a growing importance in the reform of existing production employment and incentive structure.
The concept of apprenticeship goes back to ancient Greece. The first vocational school was formed in Scandinavia in 1866, with the purpose of training manual workers in the usage of hand tools. Elementary schools began offering vocational training in the addition to the “3RS”, and the concept expanded into formal training for book-keeper and stenographers correspondence courses became popular in the early 1900s. In 1926, the Federal Trade Commission convened the National Home Study Council and introduced quantity control standards for these classes. Dr David & Wetzel further reports that vocational students enjoy a 97 percent employment rate upon graduate. The greatest vocational career opportunities may lay in trades vocational schools, formerly called trade schools offer varying levels of certification in trades such as plumbing electrical wiring, stone masonry, automotive repair, carpentry and welding. The levels of certification are apprentice journey man and mater. Skilled, certified trades people faces a bright job market.
Vocational education is job oriented and its relevance and importance to national development cannot be over emphasized. Vocational education is expected to enable individual to develop values that would give guidance and direction to life. It should also promote good mental, physical and emotional health to make a well balanced individual. For such, the commercial education and self-employment opportunities increase with smooth personal relationship. In addition, acquisition of practical and applied skills through basic scientific knowledge must be included (Olaitan Agusiobo, 1981).
Aremu (2004) opined that for vocational and technical education to become more significant and attract potential candidates there should be corporate initiative that would ensure valued assistance to vocational and technical institution in cash or kind and also requite vocational and technical education student. However, recruitment is made easier and more effective when such students had been well trained on the job.
Vocational and technical education which is supposed to provide skilled workers and specialists in new growing fields should also respond to the new changes by modifying the techniques of training student. This will help to provide the student with the best possible preparation for successful career. Hence, on graduation an individual will not only be employable but also being able to create jobs for others.
Akenejola (2003) affirmed that the social economic and political stability of Nigeria could not be contemplated in the absence of a vigorous and consistence policy to improve and update technical and vocational education. Consequently, there is need to introduce new innovative approaches to the system by which we prepare our students for the “world-of-work”.
Vocational education and job training program has been an integral part of national development strategies in many societies because of the impact on human resources development, productivity and economic growth. Despite its proven contribution Nigeria does not seem to give vocational education the attention it deserves and that appears one of the reason for the rising unemployment and poverty in the society. It has been noted that vocational education is designed to offer training to improve individuals general proficiency, especially relation to their present or future occupation. Vocational and technical education seems deficient in citizenship or leadership training (Freedman, 1982), they could provide students the skills to become productive entrepreneurs and engender creation and innovative ideas that would enlarge the nations economic pie and increase personal freedom.
Akanbi (1997) quoting Ifedi (1986) stated that while inflation is sometimes at an average of 50% in Nigeria annually, unemployment appears to be a major problem.
Although all types of unemployment manifest clearly, yet there is enabling environment and support of private initiatives by the government among others that can ginger private production with more initiative from entrepreneurs untapped resources can be barn eased with less difficulties by business products if they are conscious of this and take advantages of their preparation to serve themselves and the nation. Unemployment involves more than simply being out of work. Olokoyo (1995) concluded that “gradually, as an unemployed you loss your self-respect, your senses of identity. It is belief that the only solution is private initiative which is entrepreneurship.
Ihekwoaba (2005) stated that entrepreneurs start new business ventures and do all of the planning organizing, leading and controlling necessary to start the business and the acquisition of practical and applied skills in vocational-technical education as a means of becoming an entrepreneurs and owing small business enterprise.
According to Jones (1998) entrepreneurs are individuals who notice opportunities and take responsibility for mobilizing the resources necessary to produce new and improved goods and services.
Onuoba (1998) affirms that entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship constitutes a vital engine to economic growth and development all over the world, they play a significant role in linking various sectors of the economy particularly the industrial and commercial business.
Owuala (1999) asserts that detinatives of entrepreneurship changes as business concepts and ownership structure changes and depending upon the subject and methodology employed in the investigation of the entrepreneurial phenomenon.
Obasan (2001) views the entrepreneur as some one who performs the role of merry– go–round. The entrepreneur attracts new business sources for money, statistics the need of customers and consumers and competes with competitors.
Mauchi et al (2011) sited in Jones and English (2004) the definition of entrepreneurship education as the process of providing individuals with the ability to recognize commercial opportunities and the knowledge skills and attitudes to act on them. Entrepreneurship education can be been seen as a process of imparting learners with entrepreneurial knowledge skills and attitude through a former structural instruction. A former structured institution is usually guided by well defined aims, goals and objectives of a specific program.
According to Colton (1990) entrepreneurships education and training programmes are aimed directing and stimulating entrepreneurship which may be defined as independent small business owners or the development of opportunity seeking managers within companies. Entrepreneurships education are to develop enterprising people are inculcate attitude of self – reliance using appropriate learning process.
Entrepreneurship education is designed in order to support graduate existing and potential entrepreneurship to create and run their own business entrepreneurs to create and run their own business rather than accepting employment from government private or non – governmental organization.
That is why entrepreneurships training is incorporated in technical industrial and vocational education and training (TIVET) college curriculum.
However, graduates who are involved in entrepreneurial activities in the former sector face challenges, this includes lack of knowledge business accounting, administration and management, their success in business in the informer sector greatly depends on entrepreneurial management skills the gained in college entrepreneurial education
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE CASES STUDY (SCHOOL OF VOCATIONAL FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION OSIELE ABEOKUTA)
The college started during the 1976/77 academic year as the advanced teachers, college Abeokuta, it was established in response to the pressing needs for well qualified non – graduate teachers in location where non existed at the time.
In early 1982 the then president-in-council approved autonomy for their college along with others under the name of Federal College of education. The college consists of five (5) schools which include the School of Art and Social sciences, School of Education, School of Language, School of Science and School of Vocational Education consist of four (4) departments which include Agricultural Science Department, Business Education Department, Fine and Applied Arts Department and Home Economics Department. The School of Vocational Education is headed by a Dean. The goal of School of Vocational includes:
- To produce competent teachers of the discipline for primary and junior secondary school classes in Nigeria.
- To produce trained man-power in applied science and commence at sub-professional levels.
- To produce the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural industrial and economic development of the nation.
- To produce skilled, self reliant and enterprising craftsmen and technicians.
- To exhibit through knowledge of job skills and career opportunities in Home Economics.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Many educators pointed out that there is no way a research can be carried out until a problem is recognized, through and formulated in a useful way. Thus the statement of problem serves a motivation to carry out research to a logical end. The statements of the problem are listed below.
- What is the position of entrepreneurship education?
- Is there any awareness for entrepreneurship education?
- What are the roles of vocational studies in enhancing opportunities in entrepreneurship education?
1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to investigate into the level of awareness of youth and graduates in entrepreneurship could enhance youth academic concentration in vocational skills, and to identify the importance of entrepreneurship education.
The research topic (enhancing opportunities in entrepreneurship education through vocational studies is a subject which should be of interest to every vocational students in Nigeria because it shows the opportunities opened to all vocational students so as to reduce the rate of unemployment and services as a means of awareness to vocational students.
This implies that, this research will increase job opportunities to Nigeria citizens.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will enable the reader in understanding the entrepreneurship opportunities opened to students of School of Vocational, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.
The study will also be of great importance to the government on how to enhance and create awareness on entrepreneurship education through vocational studies in Nigeria, which will aid Nigeria development as a whole.
Finally, it will also be of importance to other people or student who will like to continue on the research or many that will undertake a related research on this in future for it will serve as reference book for them.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
As this research is meant to find out the opportunities in entrepreneurship education through vocational studies, such information cannot be gotten from ordinary individuals such as lawyer and some other profession not relating to education that is schools but can be get from lectures from school of vocational through the use of properly designed questionnaires and personal interview of lectures in school of vocational education to prove the reliability and validity of the finding under primary data sources.
Secondary data source include the use of past research work, consulting history books and textbooks, journals and the use of internet or website information.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions are raised in order to give a focus to the study.
- How has vocational studies improved entrepreneurship opportunities?
- What are the impacts of vocational studies on entrepreneurship education?
- What are the problem(s) facing entrepreneurship education?
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In writing a project of this nature in an academic atmosphere, some constraints actually delimit the extent to which the research work would have been carried out. Those constraints include the attitude of respondent to the answering of questionnaire.
The research also face financial problem that is money needed to collect information and data from various sources. Due to the nature of research work, those people involved to get information from are difficult to consult in term of time because the lectures in the school are always busy.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research was limited to school of Vocational Education only. It was difficult for the researchers to extent it to other colleges because of time factor and lack of adequate funds. This makes it difficult to generalize the findings.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Entrepreneur: One who undertakes innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods.
Entrepreneurship: Act of being and entrepreneur
Vocational Education: Is an education that prepares trainees for jobs at various levels from a craft or trade to a professional position.
Apprentices: Someone who works for an employer for a fixed period of time in order to learn a particular skills or job.
Unemployment: The number of people in a particular or area who cannot get a job.
Keywords: ENHANCING OPPORTUNITIES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION THROUGH VOCATIONAL STUDIES
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