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The overall goal of entrepreneurial education is to impart on students and our youths with the right, attitudes, knowledge and skills to act in an entrepreneurial way. Thus, empowering and preparing them to thrive in the unstructured and uncertain nature of today’s environment. This paper therefore, examines the importance of entrepreneurial education in achieving youth empowerment in Nigeria; the challenges facing entrepreneurial education among youth and prospects. The reasons for entrepreneurship education as well as strategies for designing entrepreneurship education are also discussed. This paper argues that entrepreneurial education should not only be addressed at tertiary level but incorporated at all levels of education for an all-encompassing model and in achieving desired goals and ensuring self-reliance among Nigerian youths.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research question
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
2.2 Concept of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education
2.3 What is entrepreneurship education?
2.4 The importance of entrepreneurial education impacts on youth empowerment
2.5 Achievement of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria
2.6 Strategies of entrepreneurship education for empowering the Nigeria youth
2.7 Prospects of promoting entrepreneurship education among the youths
2.8 The benefit of Entrepreneurship education
2.9 Goals and objectives of entrepreneurship education
3.2 Research design
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and sampling technique
3.5 Research instrument
3.6 Validity of the research instrument
3.7 Method of data collection
3.8 Method of data analysis
4.1 Analyzing of data and discussion
5.0 Summary, Analysis and Recommendation
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria faces a member of challenges that can only be met if she has innovative, well-educated, and entrepreneurial citizens who, whatever their walks of life, have the spirit and inquisitiveness to think in new ways, and the courage to meet and adapt to the challenges facing them. At the same time, given the current socio-economic and political stance of the country, a thriving economy would require a greater number of young people who are willing and able to become entrepreneur, who can lauch and successfully develop their own commercial or social ventures, and who will become innovators in the wide organizations in which they work.
It is common experience that many graduates from the Nigerian universities find it difficult to get employment every year. This is partly due to the curricula of the universities and other tertiary institutions which lay emphasis on training for white collar jobs (Osibanjo, 2006). The Socio-economic situation in Nigerian poses serious treats and challenges to both government and well-being of citizens of the nation as a whole. The unemployment problem further call for different strategies and actions for it to be ameliorated. Entrepreneurship education has been embraced by ad mast all the developed countries and its capabilities and efficiency in springing up economics is not in doubt. It is believed that refocusing education system will immensely contribute in developing the spirit and culture of entrepreneurship in country.
The term entrepreneurship has a history that dates back to 1732 when the Irish economist “Richard Cantillon” used the word in reference to individual with a willingness to carry out forms of arbitrage involving the financial risk of a new venture. (Minniti& Levesque, 2008). Defining entrepreneurship is complex and there is no universal theory of it. Entrepreneurship has been defined by various professions to mean many things since the middle age (Igba 2006). However, the summary of what entrepreneurship means will reflect the individuals defines point of view is (Oviawe, 2010). Drucker (1985) called entrepreneurship as an innovative act, which includes endowing existing resources for new wealth producing capacity, while this definition may seeplausible, many researcher argue that entrepreneurship as such is still a field with no clear boundaries and that it lacks a clear conceptual framework (Bruyat&Julien, 2001). Busenitzetal, 2003; Ireland & Webb 2007; Shane &Venkataraman, 2010). Gartner (1985) described it as the “creation of new organization”. It is important to note, however, that entrepreneurship, a primary source of innovation, may involve the development of new visions and new organisations.
According to Gana (2001), entrepreneurship is the ability to seek investment opportunities and establish an enterprise based on identified opportunities the entrepreneur take risks, is focused and energized by an inner drive, the ability to develop a new venture or apply a new approach to an old business is sole idea of entrepreneurship (Steinfoiff and Durges, 1993). In other words, the individual gives the market place a product or service by using resources. Entrepreneurship is the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities, establish and run an enterprise successfully (Inegbeheber, 1987) the entrepreneur is essentially a person who owns or controls a business through which income is gained. National Directorate of employment (NDE) (1989) In Onyebueke and Ochonogo (2002) defined entrepreneurship as the act which involves recognizing a business opportunity mobilizing resources and persisting to exploit that opportunity in a new way. Esomonu (1998) defined entrepreneurship as the effective manipulation of human intelligence as demonstrated in a creative performance. This singular risk taking act leads on individual to create something of value from practically nothing.
Schumpeter, who was perhaps the first major economist to analyze the role of entrepreneurship in economic development argued that “to study the entrepreneur is to “study the central figure is modern economic history”. He attributed innovation to the entrepreneur. Sequel to his argument that there is need for entrepreneurship education many social scientists have come up with many definitions. For instance, it can be defined as any pedagogicalprogramme or process of education for entrepreneurial attitudes and skills, which involves developing certain personal qualities. It is therefore not exclusively focused on the immediate creation of a new business (Fayole, Kyro&Ulijin, 2006:702).
Also, Alberti, Sciacia and Poli (2004) define entrepreneurship education as the structured formal conveyance of entrepreneurship competencies which in turns refers to the concepts, skills and mental awareness used by individuals during the process of starting and developing their growth oriented ventures. Another view of entrepreneurship education is the term given to someone who has innovative ideas and transforms them to profitable activities (Omolayo, 2006).
However, entrepreneurship education should not be confused with general business and economic studies, its goals is to promote creativity innovation and self-employment, and may include the following elements: Developing personal attributes and skills that form the basis of an entrepreneurial mindset and behavior (Creativity, sense of initiative, risk taking, autonomy, self-confidence, leadership, team spirite.t.c), raising the awareness of students about self-employment and entrepreneurship as possible career options, working on concrete enterprise projects and activities and providing specific business skills and knowledge of how to start a company and run it successfully. Furthermore, current thinking views entrepreneurship education as having three roles, depending on the context:
- Knowledge about entrepreneurship as a concept – to learn how to understand entrepreneurship.
- Entrepreneurial skills and competencies development – to learn how to become an entrepreneur.
- Knowledge and entrepreneurial skills pertaining to business startup and new venture creation – to learn how to become an entrepreneur (Bridge, Hegarty and Porter 2010).
Overall entrepreneurial orientation is the development of entrepreneurial skills, effective and efficient application of the skills in management of business to create a significant difference from other business, recognizing the skill and allowing it to function effectively.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A research carried out by Nigerian authors, Okpara and Wyn (2007), Onsmall business development showed that the rate of their failure in developing countries and higher than in developed countries. (Ater and Jones Evans, 2006) stated that the strategic problems of entrepreneurs include lack of financial source, marketing problems and customer concentration, management and human resources, lack of system and controls, and technology skills. There are few studies on entrepreneurship and company managementespecially in Africa where most of the entrepreneurial firms are very small and run in informal sector (Kiggundu, 2002). In Africa entrepreneurs experience difficulties in developing and sustaining effective organizational arrangement especially as the business moves from the informal to the formal sector when it faces external threats like new technology and fluctuation in the political and macro-economic environment, during secession or when facing regional or global competition. In Nigeria, Okpara and Wyn (2007), Arinatwe (2002) wrote that scholars have pointed out that setting up a business enterprise is uncertain and cautioned that the probability of small business owned to succeed if past the five years is not certain. Arinaltwe wrote that entrepreneurs will be faced with the risk of lacking satisfactory managerial skills, technical know-how and legislature to back up against market competition, lack of capital and in – accessibility to loan to run the business. In Nigeria, the policies guiding loan in some financial institution are not favorable to entrepreneurs, they are now left with the only option of getting loans with high interest rate thereby putting their business at the risk of breaking down, adding to other problems they encounter in their business. NobertIleh, quoting Okpara and Wyn wrote that Nigeria entrepreneurs and small medium enterprises are faced with the risk of lacking management skills, financial resources, bad location, laws and regulations, poor-economics conditions, etc. they make wrong decision as a result of poor information system, lack of formality, incompetence in using or assessing and affording new technological development that brings innovations.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The major aim of this research was to determine the strategies for entrepreneurship education towards youth empowerment in Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to find out
- Discuss the concept of entrepreneurship education.
- Discuss the various youth empowerment programmes in Nigeria.
- Problems of entrepreneurship education towards youth empowerment.
- Factors that hinders entrepreneurship education towards youth empowerment in Nigeria.
- Challenges faced by the entrepreneurship education towards youth empowerment in Nigeria.
- Importance of entrepreneurship education towards youth empowerment in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
- What are the purpose of entrepreneurship education toward youth empowerment in Nigeria?
- What are the challenges faced in entrepreneurship education toward youth empowerment in Nigeria?
- What are the solution of entrepreneurship education toward empowerment in Nigeria?
- What are the effect of entrepreneurship education toward youth empowerment in Nigeria?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work entails strategies considered effective and efficient entrepreneurial education in our schools.
- Effective entrepreneurial education requires nurturing the entrepreneurial spirit from early ages, and continuing it right through all educational levels must be recognized.
- Educators are challenged with designing effective learning opportunities from entrepreneurship students.
- Agencies such as the small and medium enterprises development Agency (SMEDA) needs to address the issue with the aim at providing funds to the universities and other institution for entrepreneurship education.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significant of this research work are enormous. First, the work addresses one of the key issues of contemporary Nigeria. It touches areas that affect the conduct of democratic principle in Nigeria policy which is the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS). Hence, the study is of benefits to student of international relations, politics, development studies, history and even those in the social sciences.
Secondly, findings of the study will provide a data base for further researchers on the strategies for effective entrepreneurship education towards youth empowerment.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Entrepreneurship: Ability to perceive and undertake business opportunities, taking advantage of scare resources utilization.
- Education: Is the key to national development.
- Approach: To make a proposal or overtures to with specific end in view.
- Towards: To furthermore or partial fulfillment.
- Youth: Youth is the time of life between childhood and adulthood.
- Youth Empowerment: It is an attitude, structural and cultural process whereby young people gain the ability, authority and agency to make decisions and implement change in their own lives.
Keywords: ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AN APPROACH TOWARDS YOUTH EMPOWERMENT
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