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EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF MONODORA MYRISTICA (AFRICAN NUTMEG)

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ABSTRACT

This work evaluates the antioxidant potential of Monodora myristica (African nutmeg). Monodora myristica extract was obtained by solvent extraction using n-hexane and used as treatment on freshly prepared crude palm kernel oil and palm oil. Equal volume of oil samples were subjected to different concentration of extract treatment (0.2ml,0.4ml, 0.6ml, 0.8ml, 1.0ml using syringe. These oil samples were equally divided into two groups SS and SR. Group SS was stored under the sun and group SR  was stored in the room for three weeks. These treated oil samples were analyzed on weekly basis at two different parameters: Acid value (AV) of free fatty acid and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, using standard methods. The main effect of extract was determined using ANOVA. For the two varieties of oil, the acid value of free fatty acid increased significantly (P<0.05) as the period extends for group SS without extract while those for group SR showed no significant increase. But AV of oil samples treated with higher extract concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) for both groups SS and SR. TBA value also showed the same trend of AV. Hence, monodora myristica extract yielded reducing effect in the oxidative level of the oil varieties.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE  

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Significance of study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review

2.1       African nutmeg (Monodora myristica)

2.1.1   Scientific classification

2.1.2      Habitat/ ecology of Mondora myristica

2.1.3   Characteristics/morphology of monodora myristica

2.2       Oil Palm

2.2.1   Scientific classification

2.2.2   Origin and description of palm oil

2.2.3   The Chemical composition of palm oil

2.2.4   Physical characteristics of palm oil products

2.3       Palm kernel oil

2.3.1   The chemical composition of palm kernel oil

2.4       Modern uses of palm oil and palm kernel oil

2.5       Lipid oxidation

2.5.1   Lipid oxidation pathway



2.5.2   Mechanism of oxidation

2.6       General antioxidant action

2.6.1   Mechanism of antioxidant action

2.6.2   Antioxidant molecules

2.7       General review of photochemistry of monodra myristica

2.7.1   Alkaloids

2.7.2   Flavonoids

2.7.3   Glycosids

2.7.4   Saponins

2.7.5   Tannins

2.8       Application of vegetable oils

2.8.1   Factors that cause oxidative rancidity in vegetable oil

2.9       Nutritional signification

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Materials and methods

3.1       Equipment/apparatus

3.2       procedurement  of raw materials

3.3       Study design

3.4       Sample preparation

3.5       Chemical analysis

3.5.1   Determination of acid value (Av)

3.5.2   Determination of thiobarbituric acid number

3.6       Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Result and Discussion

4.1       Changes in Acid value of Palm Kernel and palm oil

4.2       Changes thiobarbituric acid value of palm kernel and palm oil

4.3       Effect of monodora myristica extract on the chemical indices of oil on storage

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0      Summary and conclusion

5.1       Limitations

5.3       Future recommendation

References

Appendix I

Appendix II

Appenedix III

LIST OFF TABLES

Table 1:          Fatty acid composition of palm oil (palm oil)

Table 2:         Fatty acid profile of palm kernel oil (palm kernel )

Table 3:          Acid value for palm kernel  oil

Table 4:          Acid value for palm oil

Table 5:          Thiobarbituric acid value for palm kernel oil

Table 6:          Thiobarbituric acid value for palm oil

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1:  African nutmeg  seeds (Monodora myristica)

Figure 2:  Africa Oil palm fruits (Elaeis guinesis)



Figure 3:  Lipid oxidation pathway

Figure 4:  Dried seed kernels  of Afican nut meg.

Figure 5:  Transverse section of palm fruit

Figure 6:  n-Hexane extract of Monodora mystica

Figure 7:  Crude palm oil

Figure 8:  Crude palm kernel oil

ABBRERVIATIONS

AOCS:            Association of America Chemistry Society

AV:                 Acid value

FFA:               Free fatty acid

PV:                  Peroxide value

PKO:               Palm kernel oil

PO:                  Palm oil

Keywords: EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF MONODORA MYRISTICA (AFRICAN NUTMEG)

 

 

Additional information

AVAILABILITY

INSTANT DOWNLOAD

CHAPTERS

CHAPTER 1 – 5

FORMAT

MS WORD, PDF

PAGES

56

REFERENCES

YES

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