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This study, FAMILY AND SOCIETAL FACTORS INFLUENCING SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS CAREER CHOICE IN IJEBU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.




Many factors affect career choices of secondary school students. Identifying these factors would give parents, educators, and industry an idea as to where students place most of their trust in the career selection process. It would also allow students to examine processes they use for career selection. The literature review has provided recommended models in career choices. The review of the literature showed that two areas of a student’s life affect the career choices.

This study employed a descriptive survey design, a self-constructed questionnaire was used. Data was collected from secondary schools in Ijebu North Local Government area of Ogun State, using a simple random sampling techniques survey form. The questionnaires were administered to the respondents, six research questions were tested at 0.05 level of significance. ANOVA and Descriptive table were used for the analysis of the research question,

The findings of the study reveals that family background of students will not significantly determine students’ career choice, also there is a significant relationship between society and career choice of student.

The research as so far been able to come to the conclusion based on respondents opinion on how significant the factor of society and family of school determines the career choice of secondary school students in Ijebu North Local Government area of Ogun state. The study recommends that vocational guidance and counseling services should be rendered in schools, with a major objective of identifying and harnessing the potentials of the students and counselors should work directly with parents with the view of helping them to improve their effectiveness in guiding their children especially as regards showing faith in their children’s abilities.


Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of Problem

1.3 Research Question

1.4 Significance of the Study

1.5 Scope of the Study

1.6 Limitation of the Study

1.7. Definition of Terms

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Theoretical Framework

2.1.1 Holland’s Theory of Personality

2.1.2 Ginzberg’s Developmental Theory

2.1.3 Social Learning Theory

2.1.4 Super’s Self-Concept Theory

2.2 Conceptual Review

2.2.1 Family Involvement

2.2.2 Family involvement in career development

2.2.3 Concept of Socio-economic Status of family

2.2.4 Career Choice Factor Influencing Choice Of Career Interest

2.2.5 Why Family Influence Career Choice

2.2.6  Problems Associated With Career Choice

2.3 Empirical Review

2.4 Appraisal of literature

Chapter Three: Methodology

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Population  of the Study

3.3 Sample Method and Procedure

3.4 Research Instrument

3.5 Procedure for Data Collection

3.6 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four: Data Analysis, Interpretation and Summary of Findings

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Data Analysis

4.3 Summary of Findings

Chapter Five: Discussion of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Discussion of Findings

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations

5.4 Implication for Further Studies


Appendix l



1.1 Background to the Study

Career choice has become a complex science with the advent  of  information  technology,  the  emergence  of post industrial revolution and job competition. It was a common practice in the old days to find feudalism converting  it  into  a  family  affair  where  the  son  of  a blacksmith was destined to become a blacksmith and a feudal was born a leader. Industrialization and post industrialization  has  made  it  possible  for  a  common person to be richer as long as she or he has due skills and  knowledge  (Wattles,  2009).  Today,  one  has  not only to make due career planning but also exhaustive career research before making a career choice so as to adjust  with  the  evolving  socio-economic  conditions (Wattles, 2009). Most of students who are secondary schools  do  not  have  accurate  information  about occupational  opportunities  to  help  them  make appropriate  career  choice.  According  to  Kerka (2000),  career  choice  is  influenced  by  multiple factors  including  personality,  interests,  self  concept, cultural  identity,  globalization,  socialization,  role model, social support and available resources such as information and financial. Bandura et al (2001) state that  each  individual  undertaking  the  process  is influenced by several factors including the context in which  they  live  in,  their  personal  aptitudes,  social contacts  and  educational  attainment.

Every student carries the unique history of his/her past and this determines his/her view of the world. That history created, in part by the student’s locality and background will determine how student make career choices. It then follows that how the student perceives their locality and home background will determine the career choices students make. Career selection is one of many important choices students will make in determining future plans. This decision will impact them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is will revolve around what the student wants to do with their life-long work. Choosing a career is not like choosing an orange from a basket. According to Weiler (2007) successful career seldom happen by chance with very few exception, people who really get what they want in a career do so because they define their objective plans and schedules for achieving their objectives and assume personal responsibility for implementing and following these plans. These people monitor their progress regularly to improve their plans when they are not getting the desired result and persevere in the face of frequent set back until objectives are achieved.

Many scholars have given their own different meaning to choice and career and some have further stressed their importance and objectives of selecting a better career. The dictionary meaning of career is a way a living profession amongst career of opportunities. Many find it difficult to make choice in the sense that they lack guidance and counseling in making their choice without the help of any person. Several works have been done based on these determinant factors affecting career by students. In the same vein, there is no doubt however that there are many factors responsible for the progress of a child backwardness or retardation. Home background factors (the social-economic status of the parent) and environment factor (from the locality where the child grew up).

Michael (2001) states that the home provides many things for the child, like protection, guidance, shelter and encouragement. Again the home tries by all means to educate the child with the outside world by interpreting what is happening around to him. He goes further to say that the child as he/she is not yet informed of the factors and realities of life but with the help of the parents he will be very much aware of the tracks or steps to follow if he is to be useful in life.

He still maintains that the homes are marked by the persistent conflict and divergent aims between the parents and the child who seldom gain a sense of family of unity and hence his personal security is much more precarious. This child feels poor about the background and fumbles. “The inability of some parents and guidance to provide good background and show interest in the education of their children has a vital role to play in the performance of some learners” unless the necessary materials are provided for the learners all effort made towards his/her improvement will not work out effectively. The child without learning materials would certainly loose his sense of direction (Okeke 2003). The influence of parents has been one of the strongest and the most persistence factors that determine the child attitude towards studying different school and hence his choice of career.

Shertzer and Stone (2003) assert that the element of interest and ability are the basic factor influencing students in their choice of subject in the General Certificate of Education and Eventual Choice. According to them, lack of interest can always lead to low efficiency. Developing interest in a subject goes a long way to enhance a very high performance in any examination as a result, a good choice will help a student to achieve the necessary goals in his/her chosen subject and career he/she hails from a solid home background. Okeke (2003) asserts that school subject relevantly chosen when making a career choice and rationally balanced and studied with definite aims by any student/child at the appropriate moments could form a major factor for funding individual solution. He concluded that the school subjects shape the future choice of career and of those who pass through the pass of learning. Students should be adequately guided to choose subjects that will allow them achieve the prime objectives of education.

Another important factor that affect the secondary career choice is locality of the students, locality may influence the career students choose. For example, student who has lived on an island may choose a career dealing with the water, or they may choose to leave the island behind, never to have anything to do with water again. Maybe someone in the student’s life has made significant impression or impact, leading to definite career choice. The people in the locality may influence student views on whether or not continue their education. Someone they saw on television may have influenced the student, or parents may have assumed a family business.

It is obvious that some states are richer than other and have better facilities and job opportunities that are readily available. Whether one comes from a zone with a better education or job opportunity or not, will affect the type of education one can get and how far one might achieve it. The type of the person may eventually get at the end; hence excluding himself from education opportunities might lead to his exclusion from potentially meaningful jobs and this affects his choice of career.

Consequently, there is the influence of extended family system of polygamy or of large families of one religion (Christianity, Islamic or Traditional) on the choice of career. These cultural biases make the children less individualistic and less prone to making independent life time decisions on choosing a career compared to their counterparts in the western countries. Although, there is the assumption that children of high income families attend good colleges and universities for studies while those of low income earners aspire to own business that would grow to highest level.

Most illiterate parents are interested in getting their children to make up for what they lamentably miss and that is good education for high status and well-paid jobs after graduation. This is because they are expected to provide sense of life achievement for their old parents. Which is a form of social insurance for parents, take care of their younger ones and be source of pride in their local community.

Influence from teachers, parents and relations, peer group and friends also determine career choice of student. Julie (2004) in his research found out that about eighty percent (80%) of students in Akwa wish to further their education, while 20% will want to go and find jobs. In her findings, Medicine, Engineering, Social science and Nursing are the most popular courses among those who wish to further their education. She then observed that lack of adequate knowledge of the subject relevant to the courses is common among majority of the student who want to further their education as a result of the student home background in term of socio-economic status and locality of students.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The problem of career choice among secondary school students has generated a lot of questions and answer among scholars. The problem has been a delicate issue that has approached caution as there is no clear process that secondary school students have used to make career choice. Secondary school students should have the opportunity to explore all of the choices available in order to make a logical educational when choosing a career.

This study will identify if home background and environmental factors truly affect career choice of secondary school students in Ijebu North Local Government of Ogun State.

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions are generated for the study.

  • What are the perceived societal factors influencing secondary school students’ career choice in Ijebu North local government Area?
  • What are choiced career by secondary school students in Ijebu North local government Area?
  • What are perceived family factors influencing secondary school students career choice in Ijebu North local government Area?
  • What is the significant contribution of family factors to career choice of secondary school students in Ijebu North local government Area?
  • What is the significant contribution of societal factors to career choice of secondary school students in Ijebu North local government Area?
  • What is the combined contribution of family and societal factors to career choice of secondary school students in Ijebu North local government Area?

1.4 Significance of the study

This study is expected to have an effect on Secondary school  students from Ijebu North local government Area of Ogun state, homes, and the general public. The outcome of this study is to supplement the existing store of knowledge on the subject of family and societal impact and it adverse effect  on students career and also serves as a channel for further research on innovative ways of help student  suffering from the problems negative career choice imposed on them by family or the society.

The result of this study may be of immense benefits to the public and private individuals, government, parents, religious leaders, school counselors, students, teachers, school management and researchers.

The findings of the study may be of great help to the public and private individual as it will expose the influence of family and societal impact on  career choice of students.

The findings of the study will be useful to the community, institutions of higher learning and the Nigerian Government. The study will reveal the influence of family and societal factors on students’ career choice  and recommend ways on how to assist student suffering form negative career choice imposed on them by their family or society at large. There  are  many parents  and  teachers with  questions  as  to  why  their  students don’t get to excel in their career,  the  government  is  also looking for explanations as to why the  youth are not innovative and as to why most of them don’t become a major instrument for the nations usewhich could be attributed to choice career.

1.5 Scope of the study

This study shall be delimited to secondary school Students in Ijebu North local government in Ogun state.

1.6 Limitation of the Study

These are some factors, the constraint that may affect the study.                                       Time limit, time to go round for the research, the school activities and calendar did not give enough time for the research, while poor findings which is the inability of getting enough cash to complete the project is also a constraints. Moreover, some of the respondent may not co-operate as it is expected of them.

1.7 Definitions of Terms

Career choice: The broad opportunities that exist for lifelong vocations. These vocations are set out in a framework of strategies moving toward personal goals.

Type of parent: This refers to the number of persons who are acting as a parent to a particular student i.e. father alone, mother alone or father and mother together.

Parental social class: This refers to the level of parent financially and education level in the society.

Environment: The area or district of a child, where he/she was brought up.

Student: This refers to a person who studies a particular academic subject.

Peer group: This refers to a kind friend that a child mingles with in school and at home.

Motivation: Forces acting on or within a person causing an initiation of behavior (Britannica 2002) or what it is that moves us. In the study we will deal with the issues that help or hinder students in making career choices.

Personality: A characteristic way of thinking, feeling and behaving (Britannica 2002).


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